Volume 18, Issue 1, Winter 2022, Page 1-1087


(Asabat) through the book Matn Al-Farid with its explanation by Sheikh Ahmed bin Mustafa bin Khalil, known as Tash Kubri Zadeh (T.: 968ﮪ) Study, investigation and comment

Ahmed Hamid Saeed Al Nuaimi; Mahmoud Jassim Mahmoud

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1-26
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173383

This research deals with (Matn al-Farid with its explanation) by Sheikh Tash Kubra Zadeh, A.H 968)), in which the second type of ordinance came, which is the associations, in which came the definition of the league and the detail of the relative league either with himself or with others, and with others, causation as well as loyalty, at the time it was reached To the following results: The scholars of this nation have been preferred throughout the ages, they have served the pure Islamic Sharia, by explaining its provisions, it is their right that we should pray for them and have mercy on them and remind them of the beautiful, the diversity of the opinions

The problem of identity in the Arab novel (The Novel of the Shadow of Hermaphroditos by Badria Al-Badri as a model) Socio-literary approach

karema hrende; fatina alshobke

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 27-55
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173384

The subject of women in general is one of the most pressuring topics in the field of literary studies, and a great deal of complexity and composition, within sociological studies, as women have carried in their ideological dimensions bi-centered and margin at the same time, and in most societies, regardless of ideological privacy or the ideology of the topical approach towards women whether they are, or a social entity... Thus, women become the most consuming and neglected link at the same time in terms of their actual handling.

The sayings of the engraver in the interpretation of Surat Al-Ma’idah (collection and study)

Abdel-Gawad Salem Othman; Rawnq Muhammad Talib

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 56-82
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173385

         The research dealt with the collection of the sayings of the engraver, may God have mercy on him, in the interpretation of Surat Al-Ma’idah from the mothers of the interpretations, and there were five sayings in which he dealt with jurisprudential issues and the reasons for revelation, the Qur’anic story and morphology in addition to the Qur’anic reading. Giving the result of this saying from the approval of the scholars towards it.

Financial economics in Islamic jurisprudence

Iyad mohamed Thanon

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 83-112
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173386

     This study aims to highlight the principle of financial economics, because it is one of the five necessary purposes - saving money - and highlighting its elements and foundations for the individual. In particular. Commitment to financial controls is one of the most prominent concepts associated with preserving and investing funds in the concept of financial economy, where the economy contributes to achieving the religious interests of the Islamic nation, individuals, groups and governments .Through his study of the principle of financial economics, the researcher intended to address the preservation of money in legitimate ways and to clarify its concept, as well as its types, legitimacy, and importance, and to show the impact of financial economics on individuals, societies and at the state level as well, indicating that financial economics does not contradict the lofty principles of the noble Sharia, so that it is in accordance with the principles of trust and asceticism.

Critical sayings of Imam al-Nahhas (died in 338) In his book the abrogated and abrogated

Mohamed Abdel Moneim Jihad Bahgat

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 113-134
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173387

                  Praise be to Allah , and prayers and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah , his family, companions and those who are loyal to him until the Day of Judgment,
 It is known to the people of knowledge that Abu Jaafar al-Nahhas is an imam of  language, grammar, and the sciences of the Qur’an, especially the science of abrogating and abrogating, which he was known for.  From his book - the Naskh and the Abrogated - and collected and studied it critically, and it came out with good results, the most prominent of which are: that Imam al-Nahas was an encyclopedic imam in the arts of science, including the ills of hadith and criticism of men, and his approach was not a hard-line approach in criticizing narrators, and at the same time he was not one of the  The lenient among them, so he took the middle approach in the wound and the modification, and his saying about the men in this small research is completely identical with the sayings of the twelve imams of the wound and the modification, except in one narrator who did not do him justice, and perhaps he relied in his criticism of men on his elders considered in his era from  The imams of the wound, and  modification, the ills, and the knowledge of men, such as Imam An-Nasa, may God have mercy on her, and Allah  Almighty only  knows best.

The dialogue structure in the poetry of Bushra Al-Bustani (Eve’s Correspondence Poem) as a model

Aisha Ibrahim Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 135-153
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173388

               The areas of critical study have become very many and separate from each other, such as intertextuality, narrative structure, vision, dialogue structure, poetic, aesthetic, etc. of modern critical terms that can be studied in several fields such as painting, poetry, theatre, novel, story, and music. Therefore, this research deals with the dialogical structure in Bushra Al-Bustani’s poetry since the dialogue is a well-known technique in modern Arabic poetry, and Bushra Al-Bustani’s poetry is not devoid of this technique as we note with other poets. In Bushra Al-Bustani’s poetry, several modern techniques were employed because of the poet’s culture and artistic depth that made her use symbol, legend, dialogue, intertextuality, displacement and other critical visions that made the poet’s poetic language with an internal rhythm that addresses the feelings of the reader. So, we had to stand at the dialogue as a narrative technique in poetry Bushra Al-Bustani, and the poem (Eve’s Dialogue) will be a model for this technique so that Eve is evoked to be a conversational voice through which the image of Eve becomes apparent in a coherent artistic structure. A new language characterized by the poetic poems of Bushra Al-Bustani to form a bouquet of poetry in an artistic language with poetic techniques with multiple visions.

hierarchical network shopping

Ismail Salem Saleh Al-Barzanji

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 154-178
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173389

 The research aims to clarify the rule of the hierarchical network shopping after the spread of companies that work in network shopping and the entry of a huge number of young people into this field with  the depletion of money and the lack of real trade, what is mentioned eariler  led to the stagnation of the economy and bankruptcy of many people because most of those entering these companies are poor and aspired  to quick profits And  richness ,
Based on the  research investigation and evidence, it is clear to me that this sale is forbidden and impermissible expand it, and that people should be warned against joining it.

miraculous narration short story collection (A land of honey) by Haitham Bahnam Barada as a model

Salem Najm Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 179-201
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173390

                 This study reveals the human content and the thin emotional line that unites all of humanity, regardless of their affiliations, religions and times, and that positive human relationships are one fundamental thing that has not changed over the ages, but the negative change occurred from the human himself as a result of a culture of violence and panting behind matter. The short story collection (A Land of Honey) by the writer/human Haitham Bahnam dreamed of a supposed utopia far from the present deteriorating reality and replaced it with a magical reality that was the awaited hope for salvation from wandering and for the peace of the diaspora. His places were enchanted and his characters were miraculous, and despite these supernatural things, she announced her repression in front of the warehouse of evil that settled souls and minds, but she lost a round and did not lose a battle, and the dream of the land of honey remains

The phonetic contexts of motherhood in the Holy Qur’an

Idris Suleiman Mustafa; Suzan Mustafa Hussein

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 202-224
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173391

       One of the noble affections is that of motherhood which is one of the finest human affection. And because motherhood is a human necessity that the human species needs, God has infused the female with a lot of feelings and sensations which makes her patient with the troubles of pregnancy and the pain of giving birth to her baby, then she spent her youth raising him. If God hadn't placed this affection, she would not have been able to bear all of that. The Holy Quran was concerned with the mother, so it depicted for us various examples that we will mention in this study, which we dealt with vocally to discover the vocal connotations in it and the effect of the voice in depicting the meaning. The number of scenes we had was nine distributed among four characters between the eager mother for the child, the mother of the nanny, and the patient mother who endured the injustice of society and relatives and their accusations represented by Mary (peace be upon her).
 

Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Neama and his efforts in refuting the suspicions directed against the Prophet’s Sunnah

Ali Ibrahim Naomi Al Nuaimi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 225-256
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173392

             This research is based on an explanation of Sheikh efforts in refuting some of the suspicions directed against the, whether in the text or in the chain of transmission. That is because the Sheikh has a number of books and articles that he has devoted to this purpose, and his methods of response varied, sometimes he replies with the old proverb if there is any, and sometimes with the sayings of scholars and their guidance, and sometimes with rational arguments, and sometimes by relying on context and language, and all this is after clarifying the face of the suspicion, clarifying the person who said it, and clarifying The evidence they relied on, and the number of similarities covered by the research reached ten, five in the isnad and five in the text.

Ministry of Education General Directorate of Education Nineveh Division of Research and Studies The poetic image of the late Muhammad Mardan Diwan “After Manal” is an example

Malaka Essam Yassin

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 257-283
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173393

The artistic image constitutes one of the elements of the artistic construction of poetic texts. It has received the attention of poets and critics in different eras, even if the views of critics varied about its concept. The term is in their books, but the student will stand on multiple concepts, as there is no unified definition that has been agreed upon, and perhaps the fault in that is due to their different views and the nature of their critical approaches. An example) comes through two issues: the first concerns the artistic image, where the critics attach the utmost importance to the poetic image in modern poetry, and the second comes from the aspect of modern ٨ poetry. Symbols within the poetic texts, in addition to that, the difference of poetic generations from the pioneers in terms of vision first, and the use of poetic tools secondly.

The effect of the necessary purposes in preserving human rights

Firas Fayyad Yousef Al-Hamdani

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 284-302
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173394

 When extrapolating the legal texts in all jurisprudential chapters, we find that they center around the five holistic objectives (preserving: religion, self, honor, mind, and money), and for the sake of which God Almighty legislated His provisions. Reflecting on every chapter mentioned in it, we find the axis of human rights preservation prominent, and it is not possible for the slightest observer to ignore it, but we find that it has pervaded all rights: physical and psychological, taking into account personal freedom in all of that, and from here I wanted through this research to shed light on the part An important and main element in this regard, which is the motivation() of these five necessities in the preservation of human rights; Because as it is known that most of the legal rulings, if not to say, are all motives, not rulings. Therefore, we find her speech non-governing; Therefore, we find her address to those responsible between encouragement and intimidation, and the first is more frequent in Sharia, and we found Imam Abu Ismail Al-Harawi (481 AH) pointed to the role of defect in the reasoning of rulings that leads to the weakening of the value of the legal ruling, with the consequences of the loss of motivation, where he says, may God have mercy on him:
(Exalting commands and prohibitions: is that they do not contradict with dry concessions, do not expose themselves to excessive stress, and do not lead to a reason for weakening submission) Manazel Al-Saereen, (p. 81). Understanding and observing them is more important than even the necessities themselves; Because what is the benefit of knowing it and demonstrating it from the Qur’an and Sunnah without knowing its action, 

‏ The weightings of Imam Ibn Arafa (d. 803 AH) through his interpretation of Surat al-Baqarah in the two verses (11-119) compiled and studied .

Asmaa’ Ibrahim Khaleel Al Himmadi; Faris Fadhil Musa Al Shimmary

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 303-324
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173395

 
The weighting between the sayings of the explainers is one of the important sciences of the noble Qur’an's sciences, that the explainers took care of in order to arrive at the most correct explanation.
So in our research we discussed some of the weightings in Surat al-Baqarah, and we chose the weighting in the interpretation of Ibn-Arafa in the two verses (11-119) Surat al-Baqarah, and we divided the research into two topics:
 The first topic: Introduction to Imam ibn Arafa: It was divided into six sections: 
-The first section: his name, lineage, and birth.
-The second section: his pursuit of knowledge.
-The third section: his belief and doctrine.
-The fourth section: his sheikhs and students.
-the fifth section: the scholars ’praise for him.
-The sixth section: we gathered in it his writings and the year of his death May God have mercy on him.
 The second topic: The weightings of Imam ibn Arafa (d. 803 AH) through his interpretation of Surat al-Baqarah in the two verses (11-119) compiled and studied, and we divided it into two requirements:
 
 -The first section: the differences of the explainers regarding to whom the verse was revealed in the Almighty saying: [Al-Baqarah: 11].
-The second section: what is meant by of the Almighty saying: [Al-Baqarah: 119], then the conclusion included the most important results reached by the research.

The weightings of Sheikh Abdullah Al-Mawsili Al-Hanafi in the book Al-Moamalat (The chapters: the taboos of marriage, the dowry of the proverb, the reading, the maintenance of young children, and the exit)

Muhammed Ali Hussain Ahmad Al-Taie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 325-360
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173396

                  After I studied the issues that the sheikh, may Allah have mercy on him, suggested and corrected, and which he included in chapters: the prohibitions of marriage, dowry of parables, reading, maintenance of young children And Exodus) in his book The Choice I concluded the following:                                   
First: Looking at a woman's vagina does not prove the sanctity of intermarriage, so it is not forbidden for the beholder.               Second: A woman undergoing an intercourse on suspicion     must have a similar dowry.                                                               
Third: The woman who was judged to be menstruating, when she sees blood, it is not considered menstrual blood.                    
Fourth: The mother is forced to breastfeed her young child who is in the age of infancy, when neither the father nor the young child has a fee to hire a nursing woman, and when the child other than the breast of his mother does not accept the child.  
Fifthly: the impeller to go out is considered unbroken in his oath
So understanding in religion is one of the signs of benevolence that God bestows upon His servants, and signs of grace for them in this world and elevation in the hereafter, and it is a reason for attaining the status of fear from the Lord of the wilderness, Glory be to Him. It was among the divine conquests on the one who knew the value of the provisions of his Sharia and his religion [Sheikh Abdullah bin Mahmoud bin Mawdud Al-Mawsili Al-Hanafi (may God have mercy on him)] in his book, a valuable book and a reference for students of the honorable legal science who follow the Hanafi school, which is the book [The Choice for Explanation of the Chosen One] and it is a book Great value and status for students of jurisprudence, and the compiler (may God have mercy on him) showed the opinions of the Hanafi jurisprudence masters in all the chapters of jurisprudence, in addition to he favored and corrected some of the issues that were transferred and without their legal ruling, so I decided to stand on these weightings and chose five issues from the chapters of the conditions The character that the Sheikh wrote in his book.
 
 

Attachment of the neighbor and the accusative to two different attachments between the nominal and the actual in Al-Labbab by Ibn Adel - a semantic grammatical study (*)

Shatha Muhammad Mustafa Rashid; Saad Muhammad Ahmad

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 361-381
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173401

              The attachment of the subjective mood in the lap of Ibn Adel has great importance in directing the meaning of the noble verse, as Ibn Adel collected the various opinions of scholars in its interpretation, so we chose the topic of the attachment of the subjective mood to two different attachments between the nominal and the actual to study it as a grammatical and semantic study. Linguistically and idiomatically, then it dealt with three topics, the first topic dealt with the attachment of the subjective mood and the accusative to a past verb or a derivative, the second topic dealt with the attachment of the subjective mood and the accusative to a present verb or a derivative, and the third topic dealt with the attachment of the subjective mood and the accusative to a verb or a derivative. Then we mentioned the most important results of the research.

Hadith Islam began as a stranger Analytical study

Hussein Ahmed Abdullah Al-Jubouri

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 382-410
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173402

In a hadith, Islam began as something strange. It appears to us that Muslim estrangement does not stop at a time, place, homeland or people. with the Messenger of the Prophet (PBUH) who was with his family, relatives and homeland. However, he was attached when he brought Islam. and suffered from his closed people. Only a few of his family relatives and friends were with him. He with his few people suffered from various types of torment, unit Allah authorized his Prophet (PBUH) to migrate to Medina by where the state of Islam established and people entered Islam crowdly. With passage of time, lots of strife and people turning away from the religion of Allah observant Muslim became stranger, and looked at him with backbiting and mockery.

The significance of the absolute command requires time or repetition according to Imam Shashi Al-Hanafi through his book Al-Osoul - a comparative study

Abdul Mawgoud Othman; Faleh Iyad Faleh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 411-431
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173403

              The research aims at explaining the opinion of Imam Al-Shashi Al-Hanafi (d. 344 AH) on the issue of the significance of the absolved command does it benefitonce or repetion through his book Al-Osoul, and comparing it with the opinions of the scholars of the fundamentals, clarifying the evidence of each team, and clarifying the outcome of the difference in this issue when it reached the following results: efforts and service of the nation's scholars throughout the ages, they have served this pure Sharia, by explaining its rules, and they have right upon us to pray for them, have mercy on them.. The diverse opinions of the scholars of the origins on the issue of Do the legal rulings required to work once or for repetition?, to four main sayings, Imam Shashi went to the point that if the legal judgment is absolute, then it requires act the work once  verbally and does not need for repetition and does not implied.it  Imam al-Shashi, may Allah Mercy Him, agreed with the original statement of the Hanafi school  on this issue, He did not deviate from him  in his book (Al-Osoul)

The Art of Signatures in Arabic Prose

Tariq Hussein Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 432-452
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173404

               Signatures have emerged as a literary art from the arts of Arabic prose since its expanding  and expanding , as a result of a great intellectual revolution, which emerged  with the Arab heritage in oral or written prose forms, and signatures from arts that did not take their place to study and research, So  the present research deals with concept  of signatures, linguistically and idiomatically,  the origin and development of signatures, the most important technical characteristics of signatures, and the topics of signatures, especially the literary signature and its standards.  Finally is drawn a conclusion in with  most important findings of the research .

Monologue references in Maqamat al-Zamakhshari

Basim Nazim Suleiman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 453-475
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173405

In the studies, I clarified the cultural references within the language of internal dialogue - the monologue - that used shrines of Zamakhshari and the composition of the research plan of a boot devoted to clarifying the concept of reference, monologue, biography of Zamakhshari, and three sections.
The first topic was studied the religious reference, and the second on historical reference and in the third topic, the literary and grammatical reference was studied, as well as the function and importance of dialogue through cultural references.
One of the most prominent results of the research is that the monologue is based on three references: the religious, historical, literary and linguistic reference, which expressed the capacity of the writer's culture in various sciences such as religion, language, literature and performances, and the various technical levels within the references such as rhythm, rhetoric and composition appeared, and the language of dialogue was clear and free of stranger and used the style of appeal and interrogation, as this style of dialogue was appeared in Arabic literature before its appearance in the literature of the world.

Research Title: The Approach of the Prophet (PBUH) in Renewing Some Concepts of Expressions

Saddam Yusuf Muhammad

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 476-499
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173406

 The research deals with the renewing of the concepts of some expressions, and this renewal proceeded according to two close lines, first the renewal of the Prophet (PBUH) for some expressions, adopting a new concept that wasn’t known before and neglecting the first concept of the word or un-considering it; since it doesn’t match with Islam concepts. The second line is the expansion of the some concepts of some expressions adding another concept to the previous concept in order to expand the Islamic mentality in line with the data of the true religion.
This approach helps those who are interested in the educational process and those interested in calling to Allah, to understand the concepts of some expressions that are widespread among students or among members of society and to renew them within this blessed approach to reach students and individuals to sublime concepts that will benefit them in their life and the hereafter.

The methodology of Imam Al-Ghazali in quoting from the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah through his book (Healing the Exalted in Explanation of Similarities, Imaginary and Paths of Explanation)

Abdel Mawgoed Othman Ali; Abdullah Ahmed Ismail

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 500-528
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173407

Abstract
             The Islamic law included many sciences, such as the science of principles of jurisprudence, which establishes the rules upon which the provisions of Islamic law are based. This science, like others, had scholars and researchers, among them Imam Al-Ghazali, who wrote several books in the science of principles of jurisprudence, one of these books (Shifa' Alghalil fi Bayan Alshabih Walmukhyl Wamasalak Altaelil). It is a beautiful book in its art, which encourages us to study the methodology of Imam Al-Ghazali in it. So, our research came tagged (the methodology of Imam Al-Ghazali in quoting from the Holy Qur'an and Sunnah through his book Shifa' Alghalil fi Bayan Alshabih Walmukhyl Wamasalak Altaelil) which dealt with the study of the general methodology of the book, and the methodology of the Imam in quoting from the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. The addition came in the knowledge of the methodology in quoting Quranic verses and the hadiths of the Prophet. It also opened the door to deal with further research and study with the book.

cube strategy effect On the ability of fourth-grade literary students to analyze literary texts

Rana Ibrahim Khaled; Shehab Ahmed Hanash

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 529-552
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173414

         The current research aimed to identify the effect of the cube strategy on the ability of fourth-grade literary students to analyze literary texts among fourth-grade literary students. The research sample consisted of students of the fourth literary grade at Granada Secondary School for Girls, in the city of Kirkuk, for the academic year (2020-2021). It was chosen intentionally, as the total number of its members is (66) students. The sample of the experimental group consisted of (33) female students, who studied according to the cube strategy, and the sample of the control group consisted of (33) female students, who studied in the usual way. To achieve the goal of the research, a test was built to analyze literary texts for the fourth-grade literary students in the Arabic language, and after preparing the teaching plans, the research experiment was carried out by the researcher to teach Arabic in the second course of the academic year (2020-2021) on (4/25/2021). It continued for a full academic course, with two lessons per week, and the post-test was applied on (27/6/2021). The data was statistically treated by t-test for two independent samples. The result was that the members of the experimental group who were taught by the cube strategy outperformed the members of the control group

The effect of the Gardens of Ideas strategy on developing positive thinking among fifth graders of science in the city center of Mosul

Hussein Ali Mulla Ali Al-Zibari; Anwar Qassem Yahya Al-Azzawi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 553-578
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173415

                    The research sample consisted of (30) students of (10) years old who were chosen randomly  in (the fifth primary stage) from Al-Awael Elementary Mixed School and Asia Primary School in the Nineveh Education Directorate. The samples were distributed to Two experimental and control groups equally, the experimental group included (15) male students, and the control group includes (15). The two groups were chosen by a random method and the researchers equalized the sample in the following variables : (pre-test scores, positive thinking and skills father's educational attainment, mother's educational attainment IQ score, year average for science subject. To verify the hypotheses of the research, the researcher adopted a test for positive thinking for The fifth class. The researcher used the experimental design of the partial control with the experimental and control group of  a pre and post measurement. Positive thinking was measured by a scale that Had been adopted by university of Al-Qadisiyah . It consisted of (32) paragraphs (7) paragraphs were deleted after  the test was presented to the experts and arbitrators, and (3) paragraphs after making the procedure Psychometric characteristics to the test. So the test in its final form consists of (22) items and has been developed with the alternatives it is fit for  me completely, it is fit for  me to some extent, does not apply to me). It is not apply to me
Using the appropriate statistical means, the data was analyzed and the final results were shown , which revealed the statistically significant difference in the positive thinking test before and after the experimental group students in favor of the dimensional application  with the absence of a statistically significant difference among the students of the control group in the positive thinking test according to Cohen's classification, the researcher made a number of recommendations, the most important of which are

The effect of the card interview strategy on developing the speaking skills of special education students

mahmod yaseen abbas; Bayan Faris Naser

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 579-599
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173416

یهدف البحث الحالی التعرف الى أثر استخدام استراتیجیة مقابلة البطاقات فی تنمیة مهارات التحدث لدى تلامیذ الصف الرابع الابتدائی تربیة خاصة ولغرض تحقیق أهداف البحث تم صیاغة ثلاث فرضیات وهی:
1- لا یوجد فروق ذات دلالة احصائیة عند مستوى دلالة (0.05) بین متوسط رتبی الفرق لدرجات تنمیة تلامیذ المجموعة التجریبیة الذین درسوا باستخدام استراتیجیة مقابلة البطاقات ومتوسط رتبی الفرق لتنمیة درجات المجموعة الضابطة الذین درسوا وفق الطریقة الاعتیادیة فی اختبار مهارات التحدث.
2-لا یوجد فرق ذات دلالة احصائیة عند مستوى دلالة (0.05) عند متوسط رتبی الفرق لدرجات القبلی والبعدی لتلامیذ المجموعة التجریبیة لمهارات التحدث.
أولاً: مشکلة البحث:
ان التغیرات السریعة والمتلاحقة فی مختلف المیادین التعلیمیة والتکنلوجیة وعملیات تطویر المناهج الدراسیة والأخذ بأحدث الاتجاهات وتدریسها وبالاستعانة بوسائل التقدم فی تنفیذها والعنایة بعملیة اعداد المعلم کلها أهداف وغایات تربویة جدیرة بالاهتمام, لکنها ستظل محددة, مالم تتجه إلى خلق مناخ تعلیمی یحقق التوازن بین اثارة القدرة على التحصیل المعرفی واثارة القدرة الابتکاریة لدى المتعلمین.
ومن أجل هذا کله أصبح تطویر العملیة التعلیمیة داخل الصف أمراً مهماً جداً وخصوصاً عند تلامیذ التربیة الخاصة ومنذُ قرون طویلة ومعلمو اللغة العربیة یظهرون اهتماماً بتحسین مهاراتی القراءة والکتابة ... ولم تنل مهارة التحدث ذلک الاهتمام ولکن مع تعدد وسائل الاتصال المختلفة والتغییر الاجتماعی والعلمی وقیام المؤسسات المختلفة ظهرت الضرورة للارتقاء وتحسین مستوى التلمیذ من المهارات المختلفة (التحدث, والقراءة, والکتابة) وتطورها. ومن خلال خبرة الباحث المتواضعة فی میدان التعلیم والتعلم کمعلم التربیة الخاصة وما تعانیه هذه الشریحة من التلامیذ من ضعف فی قدراتهم فی التعلم فمن الضروری تطویر مهارة التحدث من خلال الانشطة المتواضعة التی تشمل الألغاز والمناقشات والتعاریف والأسئلة والأجوبة ، وهذا یساعد على خلق التفاعل فی الفصل الدراسی ویحفز الطالب على تعلم اللغة والمحادثة. مع ضعف معظم تلامیذ الصفوف الأولى الأساسیة فی المهارات اللغویة فی والتحدث والقراءة والکتابة بوجه عام وفی التحدث بوجه خاص.
وعلیه یمکن تحدید مشکلة البحث فی التساؤل الآتی:(ما أثر استخدام استراتیجیة مقابلة البطاقات فی الاستیعاب الاستماعی وتنمیة مهارات التحدث لدى تلامیذ التربیة الخاصة للصف الرابع الابتدائی؟)

The Effect of Using Blended Learning Strategies on Developing Teaching Skills for Biology Department Students in Practical Curriculum

Wasif Mehdi Younes; Mohammed Jassim Abdul Amir

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 600-619
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173420

        The Current  research aims to identify the impact of using strategies of blended learning on developing teaching skills for students of biology Department of Life Sciences in practical curriculum. To verify this, the researchers put four null hypotheses to measure teaching skills of fourth stage students in practical lessons for a sample of (78) male and female students from Wasit University /college of education with 39 students fell evenly in both groups of research . The researchers made tool with (24) paragraphs in three fields ( introduction , presentation  5 items, teaching and use of techniques 10 items, effective communication and class management 9 items) after researchers verified their validity and reliability. One of the researchers implemented the experiment  by himself in the first semester of the academic year 2021-2022 Using the appropriate statistical means, results showed a statistically significant difference in teaching skills in general , effective communication and class management in particular in favor of experimental group who used blended teaching strategies and absence of statistically significant difference between both groups in (introduction, presentation, teaching and using techniques).Finally, researchers presented  a number of recommendations like adopting blended teaching strategies to teach students , as well as a number of suggestions such as writing  a research dealing with blended teaching strategies in cognitive  motivation and attitudes  of students towards scientific specialization                                                       

“The preferred classroom interaction patterns among students of the Department of Physics and its relationship to their cognitive preferences”

Abdul Razzaq Yassin Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 620-646
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173421

The aim of the research is to identify the relationship between the preferred classroom interaction patterns of the students of the Department of Physics with their cognitive preferences, and the sample consisted of (120) students of the fourth grade in the Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Sciences for the academic year (2021-2022). The researcher on the scale prepared by Abdullah and Shukr (2021) consists of (14) positions, and each position has four patterns of cognitive preference. A question was attached to the scale through which the preferred class interaction pattern was determined, and its apparent validity and stability were checked by repetition. After that, the researcher applied the tool through practical education lessons, starting from (28/11/2021) for a period of one week , After collecting the data and analyzing it statistically using the concordance correlation coefficient and its t-test, the results indicated that:
1. The participatory style between the teaching and his students ranked first, then the teaching style and finally the student-centered style among the members of the research sample of male and female students.
2. The members of the research sample as a whole preferred the retrieval pattern of cognitive preferences, then the application, then the principles, and finally the critical pattern.
3. There is a statistically significant correlation at the level (0.05) between the preferred classroom interaction patterns for boys and girls and their cognitive preferences.
In light of the results, the researcher came out with a number of conclusions and recommendations, as well as providing titles for future research.

Measurement and its impact on felonies and the borders

Masoud Muhammad Ali Al-Sheikh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 647-677
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173422

  This research aims to study measurement and its impact in the chapter on crimes and limits, citing applied models of legal measurement that fulfill its pillars and conditions, through an introduction, three chapters and a conclusion that included the results of the study.
The introduction: it included the sermon, the reason for choosing the topic, the research plan, and the research methodology.
Introductory topic: It was concerned with clarifying the meaning of each. of the analogies, crimes and limits in language and terminology
The first topic: Measurement in felonies and includes two requirements, which are as follows:
The first requirement: Measuring the killing of the group by one over the pieces of the group in theft.
The second requirement: the measurement of the prey on the marked dogs.
The second topic: Measurement within limits, and includes two requirements:
The first requirement: the measurement of Ali, the drinker of wine, on the thrower.
The second requirement: the comparison of the digger to the thief in the necessity of the punishment.
Then a conclusion included the most important results learned from the research.

The level of knowledge management among faculty members at the College of Education for Human Sciences - University of Mosul

Hijran Qusay Salem Younis Al-Harbawi; Assem Ahmed Khalil Al-Shamam

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 678-701
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173423

                  The aim of the research is to identify the level of knowledge management among College of Education for the Humanities teachers-University of  Mosul, the researcher formulated three questions. The research sample (139) was drawn randomly  from the departments of (History, Geography ,Eduational and psychological sciences, English, Arabic and Sciences of the Noble Quran and Islamic Eduation  at  the College of Education for Human Sciences for the academic year 2020-2021.
To accomplish the research aims, the researcher created a  tool of knowledge management scale with (40) paragraphs, five alternatives within four axes, namely (creation and generation of knowledge, diagnosis and storage of knowledge, distribution of knowledge, and dissemination of knowledge), the tool was distinguished by honesty, distinction, and stability.
The experiment was carried out beginning in the first semester of the academic year (2020-2021), with the two applications made on the sample after designing the two tools electronically using Google forms, and the application period of the two tools taking (46) a day.
The following conclusions were made after data gathering and statistical analysis using proper statistical methods:
 
1-The faculty members of the College of Education for Human Sciences have strong knowledge management skills in general.
2-There is a statistically significant difference in the degree of knowledge management among teachers at the College of Education for Human Sciences based on gender (male/female), with males outperforming females.
3-There is no statistically significant difference in the degree of knowledge management between teachers from the College of Education for Human Sciences based on specialization (scientific / human) So it is clear  that the faculty members had a high level of strong knowledge management.of  recommendations presented , deepening communication among teachers, investing their expertise in knowledge management, and also  to supplement the current research, the researcher proposed a number of future research projects.

Ibn Khaldun and his civilized views, a comparative historical study

Shaima Hussein Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 702-729
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173424

               Praise be to God who speaks the truth and guides the way, and prayers and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad, the seal of the prophets and the leader of the messengers. He promised him and made them meet and get acquainted after: the city has a great importance in building society on the foundations of the Islamic religion. There is no doubt that the scholar Ibn Khaldun wrote about the development of society in a positive way, as he explained in Its introduction is that the meeting for man is necessary and that the Bedouin and urban generations are natural, so one of the reasons for choosing an objective was to make the difference between our writer Ibn Khaldun and what the Orientalist Gustave Labon mentioned about urbanization and civilization.
 three topics
 The first topic includes Ibn Khaldun's name, his life and the positions he held
As for the second topic, it includes two demands: the first requirement in civil language and terminology, while the second requirement was in the different conditions of urbanization in terms of fertility, hunger, and effects on human bodies and their morals, construction and urbanization
As for the third and final topic, it contains two demands, the first is migration from the countryside to the city, and the second is nervousness and its relationship to the city.
One of the sources that I used in my research on his writing presented to Ibn Khaldun and a humble Arab hadith is Gustave Le Bon. In the end, it is an effort for the sake of seeking knowledge and learning, and there is no action of exclusion.
 

Urban Consolidation Of Urban Land Uses In The City Of Tel Kaif

saad saleh aubaid

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 730-749
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173425

The current research aims to study the urban integration of urban land uses as a result of the multiplicity of factors that affect the policy of urban integration of land uses in the city of Tel Kaif in choosing the place of residence , and this is affected by the ability to bear housing costs and the choice of the location of the residential plot within the urban use in the city , which indicates that Increasing the intensity of the use of residential land in the inner part of the city, and thus affects the prices of land , the distribution of labor and the transportation system, as well as the variation in the types of urban uses in the city, which leads the population to resort to the city center due to the availability of the commercial area, and thus the increase in the value of rent and the price of land in it.

Agricultural geography and its role in international agricultural research centers: theoretical and scientific concerns

Zainab Kamel Kadhim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 750-766
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173426

    The CGIAR International Agricultural Research Centers constitute a system of interdisciplinary work on agricultural systems in the Third World that brings together the physical and social sciences. Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in agricultural geospatial research. This interest reflects the centers' growing interest in sustainable agriculture and agro-environmental mapping. It also proposes a rather narrow concept of geography. It addresses the potential origins of the limited representation of geography in these centers to date, and the context of this emerging interest. We argue that geographers bear a responsibility to extract The practical implications of their research We suggest that centers provide one way to do this. Potential contributions from the physical, biogeographical, cartographic and social fields to our discipline are considered, and the importance of teamwork bringing together these different disciplines is suggested. Particularly important, whether for applied agricultural research or the theoretical study of Third World agriculture, could be a critical development of the concept of 'sustainability'. Several thematic and conceptual building blocks are introduced for such a development.

The Coved 19 pandemic and its impact on tourism in the Kurdistan Region / Iraq

Khaleda Gamal Mohamed Taher

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 767-782
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173427

                The tourism sector is one of the important economic sectors in any country, especially if the country possesses various tourist components, thus contributing to raising the level of economic activity through tourism revenues, as well as reducing unemployment through the employment of labor, but in light of the Coved 19 pandemic) it gave counterproductive results. On this important activity through low or no tourist  traffic. The research flows in three axes, the first of which specialized in studying the effects of the Coved 19 pandemic on the tourism sector. Iraq in the shadow of the Covid 19 pandemic.
 
 

Islamic Conquer of Sjistan until Umayyad Era A Historical Study

adnan shaban abd

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 783-813
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173429

The current   research deals with  the geography and history of Sajestan. It  tackes  the Arabic – Islamic efforts which  were made by the first Muslims to liberate this region. These military expeditions started  since the role of the caliphate Omer bin AL-khatab till the Amoy authority and the beginning of Abbasid authority. Islam expanded among them which failed their  mutiny.
According to these efforts, we divide the research into many sections . The first one involves  the geographical position and their people whereas the second one talks about the Islamic, Arabic efforts during the two ages, AL-Rashid and AL-Amoy finally, we talked about the great efforts which were  done by Muslims in order to expand the Islam in this region.

The high cost of 1878 and its economic implications for Mosul

luma abdul-aziz عبدالعزیز Alanzi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 814-830
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173430

Abstract
During the domination of Ottomans (1516-1918), Mosul was overfull with waves of high prices, aridity and famine throughout various periods of time, which resulted in death of great number of its populations. Although Mosul is characterized with the most fertile agricultural soil supported by the Tigris which is the main source of water to the lands, but the flooding, restriction of water and the freezing of this river water could destroy vast agricultural lands, which in turn leads to the scarcity of agricultural products Mosul was famous with in addition to the waves of high prices in 1878 which were known by Mosul people as the "year of Lire" or "Barsameyya year" (Barseemah), which means in Kurdish (hungry) as this year was considered as one of the most cruel wave of famines and high prices the city witnessed that the price of wheat was one gold lire and this eventually brought a ruthless wave of high prices (famine) that led to the death of great number of people in Mosul and other governorates.

Kinetic education and its impact on developing some basic skills for second-grade students

Saad Salih Alrubaie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 831-850
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173431

The aims of the research are :
1- Discovering the effect of the motor education manner on developing some basic skills for a second stage in primary schools .
2-The comparison between the effect of the motor education manner and physical education lesson on developing some basic skills of the pupils for a second stage in primary schools in post test .
The researcher assumed :
1- The existence of significant differences in in pre and post tests between the two groups of the research on developing some basic skills of the effect of the motor education manner and usual physical education lesson for the pupils in second class of primary schools .
2- the existence of significant differences in post test between the two groups of the research ( experimental group and a control group ) in developing some basic skills for the pupils in second class of primary schools.

The factorial construction of anthropometric measurements for students aged 16-18 years

Ahmed Raad Alsaqi; Ahmed Ismail Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 851-870
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173433

The aim of the search is to:
Determining the simple factorial construction of anthropometric measurements for students aged 16-18 years.
Determining a set of short scales that represent the extracted factors, as indicators of anthropometric measurements.
The sample represented four middle schools in the city of Mosul within the right and left coasts, with a total of (96) students, from each school 24 students, divided equally between the three ages. 22) Measurement, and the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, mode, skew coefficient, correlation coefficient and factor analysis were used as statistical means. As for the conclusions, they were represented by the following:
The factorial analysis of (22) variables representing the anthropometric measurements of middle school students aged (16-17) years showed four factors, three of which were accepted in light of the conditions set for accepting the factor.
The factors that emerged through the analysis and that were accepted allow the following names to be given:
Ocean factor and symptoms.
Body length factor.
Skinfold thickness factor.
- A set of measurements was extracted in light of the accepted factors representing the body measurements indicators (abdominal circumference, body length, and thickness of the skinfold of the scapula)

Building scale of emotional athletic sympathy for the students of collage of Physical Education in the University of Mosul

Ahmed Hazim Aga; Ali Hussain tobel; Firas Mahmoud alkhoky

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 871-896
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173434

The aim of the research is to develop a of sport emotional empathy scale, to identify the differences between students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Mosul University, as well as to set standard levels of emotional sports empathy. The descriptive approach was used in the survey method to suit it and the nature of the research.
The research community of (740) male and female students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Mosul University for the academic year 2019-2020. The construction sample consisted of (555) male and female students representing approximately 75%, and (100) male and female students were selected from the construction sample to conduct survey experiments of the scale, and were excluded from the main research sample, and (200) Students to conduct the validity of structure (statistical analysis of paragraphs) (sample of discrimination), and (100) students to extract the reliability factor, were also excluded from the research sample, and (155) students were excluded for not answering all paragraphs of the scale. The application sample was made up of (185) students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences representing a percentage (25%) of the research sample.
Due to the lack of sport emotional empathy scale for students of the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at Mosul University, the researchers develop this scale, and identified (four) primary domains expressing the basic domains of research, and depended in the preparation and formulation of paragraphs on the method (Liker)

University of Al Mosul / College of Faculty of Basic Education / Dept. of physical education and sports sciences

Walid Khaled Al-Nama; Mohamed Khaled Al-Dabbagh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 897-925
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173435

 
The current research aims to:
- Building a scale for building an electronic management scalefor colleges and departments of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq for the academic year 2020/2021.
The research community reached (1065) teachers in the colleges and departments of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq, and the research sample included the teachers of colleges and departments of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq The number of them is (320) teaching sample for the electronic administration scale, and (20) forms for the scale were excluded because they did not meet the scientific conditions, and thus the construction sample became (300) teaching and amounted to The percentage of the construction sample from the research community is (28.16%), and the stability sample was from (30) teachers who represented the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education / University of Mosul, and their percentage was(2.81%) of the research community, and the exploratory experiment sample consisted of (10) teachers who represented the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Education for Girls / University of Mosul, and their percentage was (0.93) from the research community.
In its final form, the scale reached (39) items after deleting (18) items according to the methods of the two extreme groups and internal consistency.
The researchers concluded the following:
- Building the electronic management scale for colleges and departments of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq, which consists of (39) items, enjoying honesty and stability.
The researchers recommend the following:
- Adopting the scale prepared in the knowledge and application of electronic management of colleges and departments of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq.
-Conducting a correlational study between the electronic administration in this scale prepared in this research and other administrative variables to know the same research sample.
 

construct scale constraints of e-learning in the light of the Corona pandemic from the point of view of students in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education

Omar Abdul-Hakam; Ahmad Mouaid Huseen

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 926-946
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173436

      The importance of the current research lies in finding a measure of students 'obstacles towards electronic education from the viewpoint of students in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the College of Basic Education at the University of Mosul. The research problem emerged in the absence of a measure of students' obstacles towards electronic education, It is to identify their obstacles towards this type of education as they are an important part of the educational process, The current research aims to build the students' obstacles scale, Towards e-learning in the Department of  Physical Education and Sports Sciences. The students ’barriers towards e-learning have been identified by the viewpoint of students in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education. The obstacles that students face in e-learning have to be reduced because they are strong in forming their attitudes towards e-learning.

The Effect of Special Resistance Training Using A Power Device on Achievement of 50- Meters Breaststroke Advanced Swimmers

Ali Hamed Marie Almashhadani; Abduljabbar Abdulrazzaq Hasso

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 947-964
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173437

The study aimed to expound the following:
- The differences between the experimental and control groups in a achievement of 50-meters breaststroke advanced swimmers in the posttest. To verify the research objectives, the researcher assumed the following: - Significant differences exist between the experimental and control groups in a achievement in 50-meters breaststroke advanced swimmers in favor for the experimental group. The researcher used the experimental method suitable to the nature of the current research. The research was performed on a deliberately selected sample representing by (14) advanced swimmers of the Iraqi national team. The swimmers were divided randomly into two groups; an experimental group consisting of (6) swimmers and a control group consisting of (8) swimmers. The researcher used the experimental design which is called random equal groups design with pretest and posttests. The researcher reached the following conclusions: In comparing the pretest and posttest for the experimental and control groups  it was found that the experimental group, achieved a better development than the control group that used the method prepared by the trainer in the investigated physical capabilities and characteristics, technical performance and achievement,The accurate use of the employed power device accompanied with the (sp-1) and (sp-3) training method exercises played an effective role in the superiority of the experimental group over the control group. The researcher recommended the following: -  Using resistance training on a power device during the special preparation period after basic strength training during the general preparation period, and developing a strong base for swimmers.

The Effect of S.A.Q Training on a Number of Physical Picks for Futsal Players' Youth

mahmood hamdoon alheyali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 965-995
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173438

The research aims to reveal the differences in a number of physical variables for the experimental group players between the pre and post-tests. Also, it shows the differences in a number of physical variables for the control group players between the pre and post-tests. Moreover, the differences in a number of physical variables between the experimental and control groups in the post-test.
            The researchers used the experimental method for its convenience to the research nature, and the experiment was carried out on a sample of (20) players from Andalusia Youth Forum with ages (under 19) years, (4) players were excluded from the research sample, (2) players for the exploratory experience and (2) players were excluded for being goalkeepers. Homogeneity was achieved in the variables: age, height, weight and training age; and parity between the two research groups in the physical and skill variables that were determined by the specialists. An experimental design called the pre- and post-test randomized control group design was adopted.
The researchers used the following statistical methods: the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, skew coefficient, coefficient of variation, percentage, T test for related samples, and T-test for independent samples.
The data were statistically handled using the (SPSS) program to obtain the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, skew coefficient, T-test for related samples and T-test for independent samples.
            The researchers concluded that the (S.A.Q) style exercises carried out by the experimental group achieved an improvement in all the physical and skill variables by comparing the results of all the pre and post variables of the experimental group players. In addition, the experimental group that carried out the S.A.Q style exercises achieved better progress than the control group in all physical and skill variables by comparing the results of 

Indirect Spectroscopic Determination of Carvedilol and Propranolol Hydrochloride in Its Pure Form Using Methyl Orange Dye and Applying to Their Pharmaceutical Preparations

Ahlam A. Shehab; Dawood H. Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 996-1029
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173439

An easy, rapid, and indirect, selective spectroscopic method was developed for estimating Carvedilol and Propranolol in their pure form and in their pharmaceutical preparations, as the method relies on oxidation and reduction with a known increase (excess) of the oxidizing agent cerium sulfate ( in medium of sulfuric acid 5 molar) and estimation of the remaining of the oxidizing agent (surplus excess) by its reaction with methyl orange to form a pink color complex, the maximum absorption was given at the wavelength of 507 nm. The relationship was linear with in the ranges of concentration (0.5 - 24.5 and 0.5 - 24.0) μg / ml for carvedilol and propranolol respectively with molar absorptivity of 2.88 × 104 and 2.076 x 104 l. mol-1 . cm-1 and recovery rate of 99.54% and 99.42% respectively standard deviation value amounted to less than 0.37% for each one of the Carvedilol and Propranolol respectively in such a way that indicates good accuracy and compatibility. The method was successfully applied to the pharmaceutical preparations of the two drugs under study on the form of tablets, The results of the method are compatible with the original content of the pharmaceutical preparations and with the results of the standard addition method, there is no noticeable overlap of the excipient materials, that proves the efficiency of the proposed method.

Study the Effect Adding Back Reflection Layer (BSF) to the Solar Cell (CdTe/CdS:O/Zn2SnO4/FTO) and the Effect on Electrical Properties (I-V) Using Simulation Program SCAPS-1D

Adnan حسن Alumary

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1030-1050
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173441

Abstract
This research includes study the electrical properties using programming simulation SCAPS-1D, depending upon on numerical analysis from simulation of solar cells, where solar cell consisting of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) used as absorber layer with thickness (0.05-5.0µm) and the window layer CdS:O with thickness (0.025µm) and Buffer Layer (Zn2SnO4) with thickness (0.05µm), (FTO) layer as transparent conductive oxide layer (TCO) with thickness (0.1µm), and added background reflection layer (BSF) which placed between metal back contact layer and the absorption layer in order to increase the amount of Voc and the efficiency of the solar cell because the background reflection layer (BSF) works to reduce recombination in the back contact, and the carriers are strengthened by reversing it towards the main link. With a thickness of (1.0µm), the results obtained were {Voc=0.83V, Jsc=36.90mA/cm2, FF=85.55%, η= 26.33%}. The thickness of the absorption layer has been studied and the effect of temperatures and bandgap energies was studied.

Investigating Intertextual Elements in Naguib Mahfouz’s Novel “Khan al-Khalili” (1946)‎

Abdulkareem Zaidan Abed; Ziyad Fadhil Himood

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1051-1069
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173443

‎ Intertextuality can generally be defined as ‎the effect and presence of previous texts in the ‎structure of the ‎present one; it actually shows the internal relationships of a literary text with all ‎other related texts. There is a consensus that no texts are a complete creation of their authors; ‎rather, they are constructed through a process that links the textual elements of the related texts ‎with the writers’ creativity. In literary genres, intertextuality is employed to play a crucial role. ‎Thus, the writers, un‏/‏deliberately, appeal to intertextual elements, elaborate them in their artistic ‎career and creativity to produce the intended text. The study addresses the problem that some ‎readers' unawareness of intertextuality results in misunderstanding and misinterpreting a text ‎filled with intertextual elements. The study aims at investigating the intertextual elements in ‎Mahfouz’s novel Khan al-Kahlili (1946). The hypothesis this study puts forward is that a reader ‎who is well-acquainted with the functions of an intertextual elements is more capable of ‎comprehending and interpreting intertextual texts. As for the analysis of data, the study has ‎adapted Genette's model of intertextuality ( 1997), namely, explicit and implicit intertextuality. It ‎is found that intertextuality is an important and useful device for both the text producers and ‎readers. It is also detected that the phenomenon of intertextuality is utilized by writers of literary ‎genres for various purposes such as: communicative, aesthetic, stylistic and rhetorical purposes. ‎

Gender Differences in the Use of Elaboration Strategy in FL Reading Comprehension

Ansam Ali Alhalawachy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1070-1087
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173444

This research aims at investigating the role played by ‘Elaboration’, being an input modification strategy, in enhancing EFL reading comprehension. It further aims at identifying the effect of gender, if any, on using this strategy by finding a suitable answer to the question whether male or female students will get more benefit in enhancing the comprehension of lexical items at the sentential level. Based on these aims, the following research questions are addressed: 1- Is there any relation between the use of elaboration strategy and improving EFL university students’ reading comprehension? 2- Is there any relation between students’ gender and the use of elaboration strategy as far as improving reading comprehension is concerned? To answer these questions, a sample of 80 EFL students (40 males and 40 females) was given a self-report test, prepared by the researcher, and initially validated through distribution to a panel of juries and then piloted to a number of EFL university students, to state their responses on the basis of a scale ranging from ‘ nothing’ to ‘everything’. The results show that elaboration strategy is a good strategy for enhancing EFL students achievement in reading comprehension. There are also significant differences observed in the use of elaboration strategy in terms of students gender as better achievement in reading comprehension is noticed on the part of female students using the elaboration strategy.