Volume 17, Issue 4, Autumn 2021, Page 1-1252


((A sky that does not address its clouds)) by the poet

Esraa Abdel Moneim Fadel Hamoudi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1-23
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170290

  This Research study of stylistic phenomenon in the experience of the Mosuli poet, as he is considered one of the Mosul poets who achieved a distinguished presence in their poetic writings.
The research tried  hard to approach the semantic level and the sentence structure and structures. Moreover it focused on  the phenomenon of rhythm, which achieved a remarkable presence in this poetic group.
The study has taken from the constructivist stylistic approach in analyzing the poetic verses, which is how the construction of the word and how the parts have been placed in any building, which leads to the beauty of formation and highlights the semantics, structure, and rhythm.
Two poems have been chosen from the diwan because they represent a model that expresses the aesthetic, stylistic phenomena that characterized the poet's writings and his distinguished style for this group. As the study touch the rhythmic aesthetic inherent in his poetry, which raised the stylistic search mechanism and touched on the mechanisms of its aesthetic potential under his words, which called for a trend towards the analytical research field according to the technical techniques and linguistic, poetic and aesthetic value that the study sought to analyze

The identity crisis in the literary discourse through the means of communication after the events of 2014 AD in Iraq

Musa Abed Darb Darb

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 24-44
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170291

   In Iraq the identity of the individual is exposed to crises, attacks, and obliteration of features and confirmation of the presence, weakness, collapse and strength of an entity according to the circumstances surrounding it and the people who belong to it. Writers of all kinds and identities are the tentacle and the speaking tongue to confirm and consecrate identify  it, and they are the speaking tongue of its existence.
     Today's means of communication is one of the most important ways and tools  by which writers confirm their identity to express the concerns and dangers to which religious, national or ethnic identity is exposed. After the events of 2014 CE. and the events that followed, social media became the most prominent media window for freedom of       opinion, and through it the discourse was able to say his words in this range and to express his identity, visions and ideas, and to defend his humanity, existence and  it was able to defend the risks through the electronic window freely, quickly and accurately by affect and be affected in getting its message intended  out.

The fundamentals of Grammatical Thought for Melani (d.811 AH) in light of his Book (Explanation of Al-Mughni in Grammar)

Nidal Yahya Younis Ahmed Ahmed; Hadeel Abdel Halim Al-Bakr

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 45-64
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170292

               Arabic grammar is considered as one of the greatest Arabic sciences, its originality, the widest material, and its richest heritage. There is no doubt that the early founders of this science wanted  to protect the Arabic language from melody and error .The Arabic grammar passed in the first Hijri centuries in various stages of construction and foundation. During this period, the ways of thinking of grammar scholars varied, and they gave us a number of opinions about different issues of grammar.
           This study focuses on highlighting the grammatical thought of Milanese. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of it is the merging between the theoretical and scientific variables in the study and analysis of the grammatical thought of Milanese.
The research talked about the origins of grammar, the most important of these principles is the hearing and analogy, and It is known that these two origins are agreed upon, while there are different principles on them, such as consensus, Al-Sahaba and inference after analogues, and the inference that there is no evidence in the thing for its negation, extrapolation and approval.In this research, we try to confine ourselves to talk about the fundamentals of grammar contained in the commentary of al-Mughni in grammar by Al-Milani, since this research was divided into two topics.

Celebrating children from the fatwas of the conclusion of Imam Al-Suyuti’s preservation - Study and achieve -

Ahmed Abdel Mohamed Al-Jubouri

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 65-92
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170293

             Imam al-Suyuti, who died (911 A.H), is considered one of the most prominent authors in Islamic sciences, who enriched the Islamic library with more than three hundred books in various sciences and fields. Among these books is the book “the Celebrating of Children,” in which he conveyed the differences of jurists on the issue of seduction of children in their graves, and whether Munkar or Nakir ask them.
And he came out that they went to two opinions, some of them went to the affirm that they are not asked and were certain of that, and among them were Imam al-Nasafi and the others of AL-Hnaf, and another group went to the affirm that they are asking and asserted that, among them is Al-Bazzari.
And some of the children of the polytheists stopped whether they would enter Paradise or not.
What appears from the research is that children ask in their graves, and Allah knows best.
 
 

Proverbs in the dictionary of the arbitrator and the Great Ocean - Analytical linguistic study -

Alhan Saleh Mahdi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 94-143
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170294

               Ibn Siddah is considered one of the greatest   Arabic scholars  and its greats, as he compiled books that had a great impact in the field of linguistic studies. The research came in an attempt to study the efforts of Ibn Sidda in clarifying the linguistic issues related to, especially in proverbs, through his dictionary “The Arbiter and the Great Ocean.” His master and his method in arranging his lexiconAs well as the research between the biography of Ibn Sayyida and his method in arranging his lexicon, and it touched on the statement of the semantic relations between words such as participation, contrasts, plurals and others ... as well as the issue of derivation, linguistic control and between  semantics types , such as linguistic and phonetic indications and others, as well as dealing with some phonetic and morphological issues,  Then  the  conclusion in which came the most important findings of the research

The reason between Sharia and law (fundamentalist study)

Zeyad M. saeed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 144-160
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170295

Man seeks to understand the laws of the Creator by which He created people, what we see of the various sciences and disciplines, whether scientific or human, that spread among people, to explain those laws. To explain to people the starting point of the judgment and its reasons for understanding the process of legislation, whether the judge or the condemned, the judge will trigger his judgment on the basis of causation, and the condemned person will be aware of the type of judgments against him according to the principle of causation. This research Explains the difference between causation in Islamic law and causation in man-made laws, shows the size and comprehensiveness of Sharia, and the difference between Islamic legislation and man-made laws, as it is a broader and more accurate in meaning and significance. This study divided into two parts: Introduction and two other parts. Each part deals with two inquiries. The first part tackles the concept of causation in Islamic & man-made laws and the importance of the study. The second part deals the causation and the difference between sharia and man-made laws through two inquiries. Then, conclusions are drawn according to the most important research results

Textual thresholds in Salem AL-Ghazoulah’s novel “The Ashes of Memory”

Ahmed Taha Ahmed Shoaib

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 161-187
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170296

The research deals with the blurbs in Atab Al_thakira (Memory Detoriaration) by Salim Khazola focusing on the term as a concept and its types and meanings.
The research involves three sections. The first tackles the blurb, its functions and types. As for the second section it talkes the front and back book cover blurb . the final section talkes the accompanied blurb, vis the dedication (dedicating the work and dedicating a copy) and the appendix as well. The study has come up with the fact that the title reflects how human beings memory is deteriorated during the American invasion on Iraq and IsIs attack on Mosul. The subtitles also have reflected the real misery of the main character in the novel which seems to be pure autobiography. Besides the blurb of the cover has reflected the content of the novel and the accompanied blurbs of dedication have reflected full passion and sentiments.
 

The Semantic Domains of the Root (T.B.A) in AL Quran AL Kareem

Hayder Muhammad Suleiman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 188-209
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170297

Key words (semantics, context, root, Lexicon, Interpretation)
           The research aims at show reveal semantic domains of the root (T.B.A) in AL Quran it varieties the language texture to the root (T.B.A) according to the Quran systems and it’s status and it’s launch came as a matter of fact of truth Some times and metaphor at another time. The Study reached an amber of results, and the context had an effect in guiding the meaning of the word, being level of linguistic and analysis , especially in the Quranic text which has many Faces with multiple contexts.       

Woman as a Cultural Concept

Abdul Azim Raheef Al-Sultani; Tariq Ziyad Muhammad

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 210-231
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170299

The theme of the other (the woman) is one of the axes of the work of Arab critics, based on the idea of ​​the other (the marginalized), mainly amongst the early poets; seeing that the woman stands for an unspoken symbolic cultural system. Through an underlined cultural reading, the presence of this notion of the woman has been revealed  as a vital constituent in building the image which moves in a cloaked plot and hence it is a concealed-implicit form capable of disappearing using aesthetic and linguistic masks. And through rhetoric and its aesthetics, these patterns pass, as Al-Ghadami says: “safe and sound from its lavish veil.

Verses of "And who is more unjust" in the Holy Qur'an

Mohammad H. Mahmood Al-Obiedy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 232-249
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170300

This research shows how the subject of (injustice) is one of the topics that took a great deal of luck and a large share of the efforts of our scholars, and received great attention. Verses of “and who is darker” in the Holy Qur’an, an analytical study from an explanatory vision with citing Qur’anic verses that pertain to it, and an explanation of its meaning in its types and divisions.

Concordance of the Connotations of the Formation of Phonetic Syllables with the Meanings of Verses from Juz’ Amma

. Masoud Suleiman Mustafa

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 250-270
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170301

                Language with its different levels  is regarded as the most important  factor in conveying meanings. Sound is the smallest unit in language. The phonetic syllable is a mixture of sounds which contribute in conveying meanings. The research examines some verses from Juz’ Amma whose  phonetic syllables have an effect in portraying  the meanings of the verses which appear in these syllables whether they are seen from the perspective of  the progression of phonetic syllables which add fast to the rhythmicity of the verses ,  the progression of other  syllables which make their rhythmicity slow, the formation of verses resulting from the progression of a particular phonetic syllable or they are free from this syllable.
        The research comprises three sections preceded by an introduction about the phonetic syllable and its kinds. The first section discusses the sequence of similar phonetic syllables in their formation. The second section is devoted to handling  the sequence of  different phonetic syllables in their formation having common connotations. On the other hand, the third section includes the absence of  a phonetic syllable . Finally, the research ends with a conclusion in which the most important findings are mentioned.

The aesthetics of prose discourse Artistry Description of the Compositional Structure of Srose Discourse Forms

Nofal Muheisen Ajeel

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 271-296
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170302

               The analytical view of the forms of prose discourse is based on modern trends, especially the theory of literary genres, which view the literary text as an integrated and interactive whole, regardless of its literary gender, whether it is poetry or prose. The research deals with the artistry description of the compositional structure of the forms of artistic prose, and the structure within the framework of linguistic understanding is described as a system of signs , This system has its own laws that are characterized by internal unity and self-organization, because the structure is represented in the structural elements and the laws producing them, which depend on symbols and connection processes  , However, each structure has its own logic that contributes to its production a series of strategies, laws and compositional elements through which the textual structure emerges, which is available on a series of procedures and means that combine to produce literary texts and give it their creative character, including the forms of prose discourse that we are in the process of studying the compositional structure of art. , Such as the sermon, the letter, the will, the debate, the signature and the saying, It is to reveal the tools that contributed to the formulation and production of it synthetically and semantic.

good news On the Ruling of Vows Attachment to the Mosque of Quba Comparative jurisprudence study

Yasser Dawood Salman Hamza Al-Uzayr

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 297-320
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170303

             The topic of this research is confined to the issue of explaining the legal ruling related to the vow of i'tikaaf and prayer in the Quba Mosque in particular, as well as the vow to walk to it, so it was necessary to divide the research into two parts, the first in defining the research terms and the most important thing related to it, and the second in the statement of statements The virtuous jurists in the ruling on a vow of observance of i'tikaaf and prayer in the Quba Mosque and walking to it, Then the research was concluded with the most important findings .

Explanation of the prayer on the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, attributed to Hujjat al-Islam al-Ghazali Al-Fashni (d. 992 AH) study and investigation

Karim Thanoun Daoud Suleiman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 321-390
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170304

    The explanation of the scholar Ahmed bin Hijazi Al-Fashni of the formula of praying upon the Prophet, peace be upon him, which is attributed to the Hujjat Al-Islam Imam Al-Ghazali, is one of the best of explanations in this field, for the following:
    - This explanation was a pioneer in its field of specialization, as it did not reach our ears that someone explained the formulas of prayer on the Prophet, peace be upon him, linguistically, grammatically and morphologically at this level before him, despite the long search in the indexes of manuscripts and websites, which made it a reference for those who came after him and  wrote in this field. .
 - This explanation also revealed the efforts of a distinguished scholar of the tenth century AH, the scholar Sheikh Ahmed bin Hijazi Al-Fashni.
      This work was completed by the grace of Allah  and was in two parts: the first is the study section and the second is the investigation section, as the first section includes three sections: we dealt within the first section: the definition of the scholar Al-Fashni, the owner of the manuscript, and in the second section deals with the definition of the manuscript and its importance, and making the third section a critical study and investigation method.
As for the second section, which is the investigation section, it is devoted to take care of the verified text and processing its scientific output to allow learners to benefit from it. to concled , I ask Allah to make this work purely for His sake and to benefit all Muslims with it, and to be an intercessor for me on a day when everything will not benefit, and (may Allah peace and blessings be upon the Master of the Messengers, his family and companions, and may peace and blessings be abundant until the Day of Judgment).

The rule of weighting by the abundance of evidence according to Imam Al-Zanjani in his book Takhreej Al-Furoo’ on the Fundamentals

Hatem Walid Abdel Rahman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 391-414
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170305

                 Knowledge is the life and perfection of the soul, and its quality is to know what it is and what it has. And its a faculty that does not happen except without its origins, so it is necessary to know the principles before they arrive, and its not a  secret that the scholars of Islam paid great attention to the science of the principles of jurisprudence, as it is the science approved in matters of discretion, by which reacheing the purposes of the Sharia, and the meaning of the words of the book and the honorable Sunnah of the Prophet on the specific meanings. There is no doubt that the topics that were included in the science of jurisprudence are the subject of contradiction and preference between the legal evidence that it is not possible to derive legal rules from the evidence except after knowing this topic and familiarity with its rules. The fundamentalists have paid great attention to this subject in their books, so that the diligent (Al-mujtahid) stops on what his approach necessitates, and is committed to proving the case of conflicting evidence, and what is required of him when making preponderance, because the one who realizes the difference between the evidence and prefers one of them is the diligent (Al-mujtahid), because the difference is according to his point of view
 

Religious Practices and Treatment of Muslim Minorities in Non- Muslim Countries Comparative study

Ahmed Hameed Saed Al- Noaimi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 415-459
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170306

The Current research sheds light on Islamic minorities in non- Islamic countries , Due to this fact , issues occurred in their religious practices and treatment that obliged them to know their legislative rules Their community imposed such a condition given the privacy of these communities, we will separate this in some of them according to the sayings of the ancient and contemporary jurists and their evidence and discussion in order to come up with the satisfactory answer to these issues in their dealings and daily life in those societies, and we will suffice for me the others with the sayings of the ancient jurists and their evidence because they fulfill the clarification of the other that was mentioned in the research  .

The Inheritance Of A Disobedient Son To His Parents - An Intentional Jurisprudence Study -

Khalid Muhammad Sufi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 460-481
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170307

The jurists mentioned that there are three inhibitions of inheritance: slavery, murder and differences in religion. In this research I’ll try to confirm that disobedience to parents is one of inheritance inhibitions; since disobedience to parents is considered taboo and a major sin, and it does not differ in any way from the aforementioned inhibitions. Ibn Hibban and
An-Nasa’i narrated on the authority of Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas,
(May Allah be pleased with them), that the Prophet (Peace & blessings be upon him) said: "No one who is disobedient to his parents, no one who reminds others of his favors, and no drunkard, will enter Paradise".
The current research was divided into an abstract and a preface that included a brief statement of the vocabulary mentioned in its title, followed by an introduction and two sections: The first section was titled: Giving the disobedient son the inheritance, and the second section was titled: Depriving the disobedient son of inheritance, then I mentioned the legal origin for making disobedience to parents a cause of inheritance inhibitions as well; and a conclusion that includes the most correct opinion of the research results, and a list of sources and references.
alraajih lima tawasalat 'iilayhi. walhamd lilah rabi alealamina.

The Effect of Using Color, Icon, Image Strategy on Science Achievement for Fifth Primary Pupils and the Development of their Visual thinking Skills

Bushrah Khamis Mohammed; Rana Mahfodh Younis Al- Mula Thunnon; AHMED ABED

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 482-502
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170308

 
             The current research aims at knowing  the effect of color, symbol, and image on the achievement of fifth graders in science and their visual thinking skills.   The experimental design with two equal groups, one experimental and the other control, was used. The size of the research sample was (60) students, with (30) students in the experimental group and (30) students in the control group, and the parity between the two research groups was done in the following variables: The degree of intelligence , the chronological age of the pupils calculated in months, the degree of science in the fourth grade, the educational level of the parents, a test of tribal visual thinking skills, and to achieve the goal of the research, two tools were prepared, the first: an achievement test in the science subject in its final form of (25) paragraphs, and it was characterized by honesty and stability, which amounted to (0.80) using the Couder-Richardson equation (20). As for the second tool, it is a test of visual thinking skills prepared by Abu Laila (2017). The two researchers extracted its validity, excellence, and stability, which amounted to (0.82) using the Couder-Richardson equation (20) and it may be in its final form of (26) paragraphs, and after processing the data statistically using the t-test ( T-Test) for two independent samples The results showed the effectiveness of using the color-symbol-picture strategy in the achievement of science subject by fifth-grade pupils and developing their visual thinking skills.

Counter-induction and its relationship to rational thinking among students of the College of Basic Education

استاذ یاسر احمد میکائیل العباسی

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 503-526
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170309

Abstract
The current research aims to identify the level of counter-induction among students of the College of Basic Education at the University, and to identify the level of rational thinking, and also to identify the relationship between counter-induction and rational thinking, and female students), including (50) male students and (50) female students) from the two departments (Special Education, Science). To achieve the goals, the researcher relied on the (Shitb, 2014) scale, which is the most suitable for the research sample represented by students of the College of Basic Education at the University of Mosul. The scale consisted of (28) items and five alternatives (exactly, often, sometimes, rarely, never apply to me), and also the researcher relied on the (Mohammed, 2019) scale of rational thinking, which consists of (32) items, each carrying the following alternatives (I always agree, I agree sometimes, I don’t agree,
I never agree), and the researcher carried out the procedures of honesty and reliability on the two tools by the method of apparent honesty and stability by the method of re-testing. The main ones have counter-attractiveness in a significant proportion, and they also have rational thinking, and that there is a positive relationship between the two variables at the level of significance (0,05), and the researcher came up with a set of recommendations and suggestions that support the research.

Iraqi identity Search in sociological civil society my family under duress industry Nineveh province, a model

Hassan Jassim Rashid

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 527-559
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170310

Iraqi lived as a civil / civil identity before and after finishing (2003) To this day attempts to destroy the physical and institutional dismantling and very cultural shredding in no Imran and no coexistence and non-continuity.This  means in one of the most important pillars invitation to pull identity and bring Diaspora Altheloinat Social original very in control of the community, in turn formed many features of this community obstacles counter to such policies and behaviors among these features culture and through pictures and diverse elements multiple configuration including culture civil / Civil Besides feeling and raising the slogan of liberation reaction about the occupation and its challenges, as it can be said that culture / civil Civil effectiveness was further than this in the act as it formed the basic premise Almikanzmi social path toward liberation that because of their influence effectively and actively in the social structure of Iraq and refused to everything the formal occupation of cultures, fragile, and barbaric, and Tstatah So stand worthwhile in front of such acts and circumstances  cessitates taking points strengths and weaknesses both identified culture civil / civil foundation for success or not, so the invitation to assert these Iraqi culture and Tasilha and straightened is the way most effective and safest, for many reasons, perhaps in the forefront of effective Iraqi It is at the same time weak point in such circumstances - and other factors, and therefore: Must return to the past and not completely, but partly taking Bamufad and according to the demands of reality, and strengthen the mechanisms and channels methods and represented (as a model)Religious moral side --- ------ teachings of the religious establishment, mosque / churchCustomary side ---- customs and traditions ---- teachings Family Foundation / home / locality / village Occupational physical side ---- ------ teachings economic / market / product / casino product Official effects ------ Educational ------ doctrinal and military These pillars of social construction and its mechanisms are University Square and social melt where all configurations social aid and these mechanisms are available and form natural composition constructivism with Article rich cultural Barth civilization, the Iraqi will support its existence Kaamran human and sense of social civilization and strengthen sustainability and What Happens to the future as a community my family / civil top position and Tsampa In the spirit of humanitarian configured and interconnected human formative for which we now call: - (Iraqi society needs to be dialogue between nationalities and peaceful coexistence, etc.)

Analysis of the content of science books for the first grades of the primary stage in the light of science standards for the next generation

Hania Mounir Mustafa Al Shanwani

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 560-587
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170311

The study aimed to determine the degree of availability of science standards for the next generation in science books for the first grades of the primary stage in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this, the researcher prepared a list of science standards for the next generation that must be available in science books for the first grades of the primary stage (first-second-third), and a content analysis card was prepared for the three books. a set of results were reached, the most important of which is: The science standards for the next generation were included in the three science books for the first grades of the primary school, at a rate of (100%) and with a great degree of availability. The difference between these books came in the number of repetitions of the criteria in each book. Where these standards came in science books for the first grade of primary school by (59) recurrence, and in science books for the second primary grade by (75) recurrence, and in science books for the third primary grade by (91) recurrence.

The level of performance of teachers of faculties of education in the light of recent trends in the curriculum from the point of view of their students

Sabhan Younis Majid

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 616-640
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170312

    The aim of the current research is to identify the level of performance of the teachers of the faculties of education in the light of the modern curriculum trends from the point of view of their students. A female student for each department distributed equally according to the variables of gender and scientific specialization, they were chosen by a stratified random method, and for the purpose of achieving the goal of the research, the researcher prepared a questionnaire consisting of (32) items that included modern trends for all elements of the curriculum, and after verifying its validity and stability, it was distributed through electronic classes via the platform Google Classroom Educational., After collecting, analyzing and statistically processing the data using the t-test for one sample and the t-test for two independent samples, the researcher reached the following results:
1. The performance level of the teachers was good compared to the hypothetical average.
2. There was no statistically significant difference at the level (0.05) between the average performance of teachers in the two faculties of education according to the gender variable.
3. There is no statistically significant difference at the level (0.05) between the average performance of teachers in the two faculties of education according to the specialization variable.
                In light of the results, the researcher came up with the following  important conclusions The level of performance of the teachers of the faculties of education in general for the teaching skills is high in light of the modern trends of the curriculum and from both the scientific and human specializations The researcher also came out with a number of recommendations, and suggested many titles for future studies.
 

Criticism of instrumental reason outside the theses of the (Frankfurt) School, (Zygmunt Baumann) and (Edgar Morin) as a model

Laith Muzahim Khudair; Kazem Taghreed Hanoun Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 641-670
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170313

The consequences of Instrumental Reason have sparked a series of extensive discussions about the nature, origin and role of this Reason in contemporary societies, these deliberations were not limited to members of the Frankfurt School and its thinkers of their successive generations. Rather, it extended to include another group of thinkers, philosophers, and scholars who fall classified outside the intellectual space of the aforementioned school, Such as (Martin Heidegger, Jean-François Lyotard, Hannah Arendt, Michel Foucault, Zygmunt Bauman, Edgar Morin) and others. Although many of them meet the theses of the Frankfurt School in many of its main general lines, they were interested in researching The structure of this Reason, the investigation of its roots and its causes, the study of its symptoms and its manifestations, and they have resorted to new methods and approaches to criticize this Reason, deconstruct its fabric and dissect its system, and try to shed more light on the aspects that the leaders of the Frankfurt School neglected, or to deepen and broaden aspects of contemplation, or to address phenomena And practices hidden or unseen associated with this Reason and its ongoing process.

Criticism of instrumental reason outside the theses of the (Frankfurt) School (Zygmunt Baumann) and (Edgar Morin) as a model

Laith Muzahim Khudair; Kazem Taghreed Hanoun Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 641-670
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170314

The consequences of Instrumental Reason have sparked a series of extensive discussions about the nature, origin and role of this Reason in contemporary societies, these deliberations were not limited to members of the Frankfurt School and its thinkers of their successive generations. Rather, it extended to include another group of thinkers, philosophers, and scholars who fall classified outside the intellectual space of the aforementioned school, Such as (Martin Heidegger, Jean-François Lyotard, Hannah Arendt, Michel Foucault, Zygmunt Bauman, Edgar Morin) and others. Although many of them meet the theses of the Frankfurt School in many of its main general lines, they were interested in researching The structure of this Reason, the investigation of its roots and its causes, the study of its symptoms and its manifestations, and they have resorted to new methods and approaches to criticize this Reason, deconstruct its fabric and dissect its system, and try to shed more light on the aspects that the leaders of the Frankfurt School neglected, or to deepen and broaden aspects of contemplation, or to address phenomena And practices hidden or unseen associated with this Reason and its ongoing process.

The reality of using blended learning in teaching physics at the secondary stage from the point of view of its teachers

Tariq Muwaffaq Sahri Al-Taie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 671-692
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170317

             The study aimed at know the reality of the use of blended learning by male and female physics teachers in the city of Mosul. The study sample consisted of (99) male and female teachers. To achieve the goal of the research, the researcher used the questionnaire as a tool in collecting data, which in its final form consisted of (33) five-paragraph alternatives, after presenting it to a group of arbitrators to ensure the validity of its paragraphs, and after the researcher verified the validity of the questionnaire’s paragraphs and the stability of its paragraphs, which amounted to (0.85), the questionnaire was distributed to the individuals of the research sample. After data collection and statistical analysis, the results showed that paragraph (20) obtained the highest intensity for paragraph and paragraph (1) obtained the lowest intensity of the paragraph. The t-test was also used to identify the degree of differences due to the sex variable. The study reached the following results: the degree of the reality of blended learning among male and female physics teachers in the city of Mosul came to a medium degree in general.

The reality of the practice of secondary school students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of the skills of the twenty-first century from the point of view of teachers

Norah Nasser Alowayyid

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 693-741
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170318

The study aimed to know the reality of high school students ’practice of twenty-first century skills. The researcher used the descriptive survey method in her study, and the (questionnaire) tool was applied to a random sample of secondary school teachers in the city of Riyadh.
One of the most important results of the study was that the practice of communication skills from high school students came to a high degree from the sample, as well as the practice of thinking skills from high school students came with a high degree, and also the practice of knowledge production skills came to a high degree according to the agreement of the sample members, and fourthly, the practice of social skills from students The secondary stage also came with a high degree, while there were statistically significant differences in the study in favor of higher educational qualifications, greater years of experience, and training courses that were enrolled in the field of skills of the twenty-first century.
The study also recommended the importance of encouraging high school students to practice twenty-first century skills in their daily behaviors, as well as the importance of integrating twenty-first century skills into the decisions and regulations for preparing female teachers before and during their service.

Modern Technologies and Their Impact on the Restoration of Monuments

Omar Ahmed Shakir

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 742-804
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170319

 Archaeology, its restoration and conservation is of the great importance It aims to preserve the physical evidence that reveals the stages of human development of this science. Contemporary scientific techniques have a great impact to preserve it from the environmental factors that affect it.

 

Cartographic Representation of the Natural Ingredients Affecting Wheat Cultivation Within Hammam Al-Alil District

Watban Mohammed Mugear; Lumya Hussein Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 805-817
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170320

       The effective map has an important role in showing the results of the geographical research and seeing the variation in the spatial distribution of geographical phenomena, especially the natural ingredients within the natural aspect in a case study of the production of a particular crop, as it shows the role of the map in highlighting the importance of each natural factor in the cultivation and production of the crop according to the available data for the surface, climate, soil and water resources which are the most influential factors in the variation of distribution, and the wheat crop is one of the most important economic crops that the countries of The world are interested in producing or obtaining in providing global food security as it is the basic food item for different peoples and to show accurate results in preparing effective maps that show the cartographic representation of the cultivation and production of the wheat crop According to the natural geographical data, Hammam Al-Alil district was taken within Nineveh Governorate, one of the governorates of Iraq, to ​​enhance the possibility of perceiving distribution maps and matching them to produce an effective map that combines all the ingredients affecting the cultivation and production of wheat at the district level through the capabilities of one of the GIS software represented by the ARCGIS program in the representation and matching of factors mentioned as ingredients for wheat production, as It appeared through This is the variation in the distribution of crop production with the variation in the distribution of the natural ingredients affecting its cultivation and production within the district

The Geographic Foundations of American Soft Power

Ahmed Hamed Ali; Omar Riyad Faisal

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 818-849
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170321

             Smart power that relies on hard and soft power has become one of the basic pillars of American foreign policy,It  has been adopted by  President Barack Obama officially adopted it during his first and second terms of office due to the failure of the American military force in Iraq, which prompted the United States of America to conduct a comprehensive review of the foreign policy and the methods it uses, In addition to the economic crisis that the United States witnessed, which resulted from the policy of wars it pursued in both Iraq and Afghanistan, greatly affected the United States of America, as well as the emergence of many important challenges, foremost of which are the nuclear proliferation crisis, the energy crisis, the Chinese rise and the pursuit All these reasons prompted the United States of America to change its foreign policy and work to give a greater role to diplomatic, cultural and media means, as well as the role of the technological component in the state's foreign policy.

The economic aspects of the city of Balis in Islamic eras

Amer Abdalslam Alabasse; Rana Salah Taher

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 850-864
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170322

Economic life flourished in the city of Balis, like other ancient Euphrates cities on both banks of the Euphrates, especially at the beginning of the Umayyad era and through the Abbasid era. It lies at the crossroads of rivers and land in the middle of a rich agricultural region, which explains the economic, agricultural and commercial prosperity it apparently experienced during most of this period. The city of Balis also knew some of the traditional industries that existed in the Levant at that time, thanks to its location on the Euphrates, which made it a port and a center for commercial transportation. The research included an introduction and four axes. In the introduction, the researcher dealt with the site of the city of Pulse. In the first axis, we talked about agriculture, the second axis, in which the researcher dealt with trade and industry, the third axis, in which we dealt with the economic crises that the city of Pulse was exposed to, and the fourth axis, in which we talked about the karmic merchant Muhammad bin Muslim Balsi and his commercial role.

Formations of the Turkish Revenge Consortium TİBT

Jamal Kamal Ismail Kirkukli

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 865-885
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170323

                In the Turkish political arena, and since the 1960s, where the military establishment tightened its grip on power following the coup of May 1960, many extremist organizations have varied affiliations between the Left and Right of the nationalist, Islamic and secular movements, and continued to the nineties and the emergence of the concepts of the deep state. With the beginning of the twenty-first century when the Justice the Development Party took over the power in 2002 and its adoption of reforming that lead to ending the role of the military institution in political life, which prompted it to take positions rejecting the Islamists' handover of power, secretly and publicly.
            Since 2011, the Turkish media began highlighting a new secret cell that bore the name of the Turkish Revenge Union formations as an ultra-nationalist radical organization. The formation believes in armed action as the only way to reach its goals of reviving Ataturk's legacy; and taking back Turkey to the era of its revival and power- the period of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk's rule. 
   The importance of the research lies in trying to address the organization's links, roots, establishment, ideology, goals, activities, and internal and external positions.

Flood Risk Assessment of Kardem Basin by Multivariate Analysis Method

Sohaib Hasan Khudhur

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 886-915
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170324

Although the water flow is a part of the natural functions of the valleys in the water basins, the manifestations of the surface runoff are transformed into stages that exceed the capabilities of the valleys’ streams. They are called flash floods and they occur at indefinite periods, so they are considered hydrologically dangerous because of the human and material losses they cause to various economic activities. The valleys within the water basin and the drainage basins vary among themselves in the occurrence and severity of floods, and they are related to a number of natural and human environmental factors and variables (geology, geomorphological, hydrological, climatic, land use, and others). A multivariate method based on geographic information systems (GIS-MEC) was adopted to model the flood risks of one of the water basins in the Simil region (Kardim Basin) with an area of ​​(100.0) km2 and its estuaries end in the Tigris River north of Mosul Dam lake on the eastern side. The modeling included ( 7) Variables which are (Row depth RD)-(flow volume-(SRV(CN flow curve)-(Geological formations)-(Slope)-(Aspect)-)-(NDVI vegetation).
The outputs of the model showed that (59.22%) of the basin area, the movement of torrents is classified as moderately dangerous and (31.45)%, which are concentrated in the upper parts of the basin within the heights of Aqrah, the degree of torrential risk is high and very high, and (9.33)% the degree of torrential risk is few and very few.

Assessing the State of the Urban Buildings in Baiji City and their Reconstruction Using Modern Geographical Technologies

Manhal Abdullah Hammadi Al-Jubouri

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 916-944
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170325

        Wars, conflicts and disasters in many cities throughout the contemporary history have had negative effects on the urban environment of those cities where disasters occur, whether by man or by nature, as they always cause   destruction by causing total or partial damage to all urban buildings and to the lives of the human being himself, after being displaced by homelessness. The results of the research were shown through the analytical approach adopted in assessing the state of the buildings after the war for the city of Baiji and their reconstruction according to the proposed plans to ensure a sound urban environment for the population, it was found that there was serious damage to the buildings, as the buildings suffered very significant damage amounting to approximately (121) 1) Buildings (47.37%) of the total of 2,556 buildings, of which 1,345 were partially damaged (52.62%), as a result of these damages The study developed proposals that speed up the age process and presented some advanced urban scenarios that ensure the sound urban environment of Baiji city using cityEngine 2015.0, programs  which is a technology for the urban development.
 

Building and Applying the Existential Ettendance Scale for Edvanced Football club Players in Nineveh Governorate

Manhal Khattab Sultan; Ali Hamed Sulieman Mutlug

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 945-970
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170328

- Building an existential attendance scale for advanced football club players in Nineveh Governorate.
- Identifying the degree of existential presence among advanced football club players in Nineveh Governorate.
- Identifying the levels of existential presence among advanced football club players in Nineveh Governorate.
     The descriptive approach was used for its relevance with the nature of the research, and the research community included the advanced football club players in  Nineveh Governorate for the sports season (2020-2021), which included  (637) players, and the research sample was randomly selected from the research community and by (444) players with a percentage of (69.70%) of the research community, while the construction sample was (324) players and a percentage of (72.963%) of the research sample and it was applied to a sample of players consisting of (120) players with a percentage of (27.027%) of the sample search.
           The researchers showed the following conclusions:
1- The effectiveness of the existential attendance scale  is seen among the advanced football club players in Nineveh Governorate and its ability to diagnose existential attendance when used as a means of measurement.
2- The advanced football club players in Nineveh governorate have medium levels of existential presence.
            In light of these conclusions, the researchers recommend the following:
1-  taking advantage from the scale of existential attendance among the football players of Nineveh Governorate clubs, which has been built by the two   researchers and to take in consideration the possibility of applying it to conduct similar research on other individual and collective sporting, with other psychological variables.
2- Paying attention to forms the social support forms , especially financial support, in order to enhance the positive psychological aspects, such as raising the morale, instilling enthusiasm and instilling confidence in the hearts of the players because of their effective impact on enhancing the existential presence of the players.

Analytical Study of the Horizontal and Vertical Velocity of the Weight Trajectory in the" "Snatching Lift for the Champion of Arab Countries in Weightlifting

Saad Nafeh Al-Dulaim; Thaer Ghanem Mulla Alo

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 971-985
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170329

The researcher aims to:
 1- Recognizing the values ​​of the horizontal and vertical velocity variables for the phases of the weight trajectory for the successful and unsuccessful attempts in the snatching lift for the champion of Arab countries for weightlifting.
 2- Recognizing the differences in the horizontal and vertical speed of the weight-trajectory stages of the successful and unsuccessful attempts to lift the snatch for the champion of Arab countries in weightlifting
. The researchers hypothesized: - The presence of significant differences in the horizontal and vertical speed of the weight trajectory stages of the successful and unsuccessful attempts in the snatch lift of the Arab countries champion in weightlifting and in favor of the successful attempts.
The research sample consisted of a weightlifter who was deliberately chosen, and he is the champion of the Arab countries for youth for the year 2012 for the category (56 kg). The researchers used analysis, measurement and scientific and technical observation as a means of collecting data. / sec), where the camera was placed at a distance of (5 m) from the right side of the weight lifter, and the height of the camera lens was (1.10 m) above the level of the drum. The (6) attempts, (3) successful and (3) unsuccessful attempts with a weight of (85) kg, which represents 90% of the highest achievement of the champion, and the horizontal speed of the lifting stages (first pull, knees stage, second pull stage, fall stage) were analyzed. . The researchers used the following statistical treatments (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-test for related samples.
 The researchers concluded the following:
 1- There are significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful attempts in the fall stage in the horizontal displacement variable in favor of the successful attempts.
2- There are significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful attempts in the first swipe stage in the variable of time and in favor of the successful attempts.
 3- There are significant differences between the successful and unsuccessful attempts in the knee stage in the variable of time and in favor of the successful attempts.
 4- There are no significant differences between the variables (vertical displacements, times, vertical velocity) of the successful and unsuccessful transformers of the weight trajectory in the snatching lift of the champion of the Arab countries.
The researchers recommended the following:
1- Keep the track of the weight close to the body.
2- Not to use hitting the weight in the hips area to increase the hook arch.
 3- Emphasis on limiting deviations that negatively affect the trajectory of the weight to reduce the failure of the attempt.
 

A comparative study in some respiratory system variables in case of rest (comfort) and effort in different temperature for swimmers

amjad hatem ahmad لا یوجد; Mohammad Hazim Younes Hazim Younes Younes

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 986-1005
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170332

تعد دراسة الاستجابات الوظیفیة للجهاز التنفسی من الموضوعات التی اشغلت فکر العدید من الباحثین على مدى سنوات لما لهذا الجهاز من دور مهم وفعال للوصول بالریاضی الى درجة عالیة من الأداء البدنی .
ونظراً لتأثر الانسان بالجهد البدنی فقد اجریت دراسات عدیدة للوقوف على هذا التأثیر وظیفیاً ونفسیاً وانجازاً، ولما کان الانجاز البشری یتأثر بعوامل ومتغیرات کثیرة غیر القابلیة البدنیة کان من الضروری اخضاع هذه المتغیرات للدراسة والبحث للکشف عن تأثیراتها الایجابیة والسلبیة ومحاولة الاستفادة من هذه المتغیرات او عزلها عن التطبیق لتلافی تأثیراتها السلبیة وایجاد الحلول لمعالجتها ضمن القوانین المستخدمة فی الفعالیات الریاضیة .
تلعب درجة حرارة المحیط المائی دوراً مهماً فی تأثیرها فی الانجاز الریاضی وعلى العملیة التدریبیة بصفتها احدى المتغیرات التی قد تکون ایجابیة احیاناً وسلبیة فی احیاناً اخرى ومع ازدیاد المشارکة فی النشاطات الریاضیة مثل الترایثلون و سباحة المسافات الطویلة والسباحة الترویحیة التی استدعت الاهتمام بالتدریب فی البرد لکون الجهاز التنفسی یتأثر تأثیرا کبیراً فی درجات الحرارة یرقى الى درجة المشکلة لکون السباحة من الریاضات التی تمارس فی محیطات مختلفة فقد تمارس داخل المسابح المغلقة او المسابح المکشوفة کما فی سباقات المسافات القصیرة او تمارس فی الانهار او البحار والبحیرات کما فی سباقات المسافات الطویلة او السباحة فی ریاضة الترایثلون من المنطقی ان هناک اختلاف فی درجة حرارة ماء المسبح المغلق عن المسبح المکشوف وکذلک تختلف درجة الحرارة عن الانهار والبحار والبحیرات .

Obstacles to Scientific Research from the Point of View of Holders of Higher Degrees in the Field of Physical Education in the Nineveh Education Directorate

Mothana Hazim Almola

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1006-1022
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170333

                  The study aimed at identify the obstacles on scientific research among holders of higher degrees in the specialty of physical education in the education of Nineveh. The study tool of the study was a questionnaire consisting of (41) items distributed into (6) areas, while the research sample consisted of (48) teachers of physical education in the Directorate of Physical Education. Nineveh Education, and the study resulted in the results of research obstacles facing the teaching staff and preventing them from carrying out scientific research in an optimal manner. Researchers have And the low level of obstacles related to professional growth related to scientific research for teachers, and the researcher recommended providing material and moral support to researchers who carry out the best scientific research in the field of physical education, facilitating the participation of researchers in internal and external scientific conferences, providing facilities for researchers to publish in sober local and international scientific journals, and holding courses developmental statistics and measurement for researchers in the Nineveh Education Directorate.

Epidemiological study of Cryptosporedium parvum parasite in some districts of Nineveh province, with referring to histopathological effects in lab mice.

Shireen H. Younis; Firas M. B. Alkhasha

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1023-1048
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170334

Abstract:
 the present work was aimed to investigate the endemicity of Cryptosporidium parvum (The coccidian intestinal protozoan of man and other grazing animals)in some districts of Nineveh province, then evaluating the histopathological effects of the isolated parasite in inoculated mice. A total of 200 child those attended healthcare centers and diagnosed clinically to have persistent and chronic diarrhea were chose for the study. There ages were ranged from  ≤1 to ≥5 years old. Their families were practicing  livestock grazing. The study were performed between October 2020 and March 2021, in 5 districts : Al- Hamdania, Bartelah, Basheqah, Fadhliah and Kokgali; respectively. Blood and stool sample were taken from each patient. Depending on direct and immunodiagnostic methods, the highest infection percentage was recorded in Kokgali district (48.1%), and the lowest was recorded in Bartelah district (27.2%). The percentage of positive cases were varied according to the performed diagnostic method: ELISA technique for stool samples (40%),  ELISA technique for blood samples (36%), Zeil Neelsen stain (35% ) and  flotation method (30%). Infection percentage in males (44.7%)was higher than females (35.7%). Considering age groups, 3-5 years group was more likely to get cryptosporediasis infection(56% of the positive cases). Inoculation of the parasite in lab mice showed obvious histopathological changes, especially in the epithelial brush bordered cells of intestine.

Spectrophotometric Determination of Mesalazine by Oxidation and Shortening Using Methyl Orange Dye and Application to Pharmaceutical Preparations

Ahlam Shehab; Dawood Haboo Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1049-1071
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170451

A rapid, sensitive and indirect spectral method was developed to estimate the mesalazine in the aqueous solution, as the method relied on the oxidation and reduction reaction of the mesalazine oxidation with an increase (calculated) from the oxidizing agent of bromate - bromide mixture in the medium of hydrochloric acid. The remaining (non-reducing) concentration then reacts. With a constant amount of methyl orange dye leads to color bleaching. The residual dye was followed at 507 nm wavelength. The relationship was linear between residual pigment absorption and increased drug concentration, and the micrographic quantities of mesalazine that followed Beer ٬ s law limits were estimated from 0.5 to 12.5 µg /ml with molar absorptivity 2.03 x 104 l.Mol-1.. cm-1 and Sand ell’s sensitivity index (0.0075357) µg / cm2 . A relative standard deviation whose value does not exceed 0.690% and the C recovery value not less than 99.05%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmaceutical preparations as tablets and it was compatible with the original content of the pharmaceuticals and with the results of the standard addition method.

Synthesis and Characterization of some new palladium (II) Complexes with Dithiocarbamate ligands and Study of Antibacterial Activity

Anwer M. Ameen

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1072-1083
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170336

The new palladium (II) dithiocarbamate complexes of general formula
[Pd(AmDTC)2] (where AmDTC = amine dithiocarbamic acid, Am
=Histidine, Arginine, Lysine, Glycine, N-1-Naphthyl ethylene diamine and 2-
amino aniline) are prepared form the reacting of dithiocarbamate ligands with
palladium(II) chloride. All prepared compounds are characterized by using
elemental analysis, FT- IR, (H
1
-NMR of complex 2 and complex 3, ligand 2
and ligand 3). All complexes are tested for antibacterial effects and some of
them showed a good significant antibacterial activity.

Applying Newmark's Translational procedures in translating Original metaphor in Shakespearean play: Macbeth

May Mokarram; Nada Bashar Bashar

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1084-1099
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170337

          Original metaphor is one of the fascinating and main types of metaphor. This type of metaphor is concerned with conveying the sense of a particular word or phrase in an inaccurate literary way. Since, the original metaphor is the most used in this play the study will exclude the other types of metaphor except the original metaphor.
This study aims at investigating, the translation procedures employed in rendering the original metaphor that exists in Macbeth. Also to remark whether the selected translators have succeeded in translating the original metaphor properly into Arabic or not.
The study hypothesizes that applying Newmark's Translation procedures(1988) can fulfill an appropriate rendering and assist to notice some problems that the translators may face.
          The study concludes that the selected translators give different translations according to their comprehension of the original metaphor examples included in Macbeth. Furthermore, the procedure of representing the same form in the TL is the most frequently employed since it offers the best rendering possible to transfer the message from the ST while keeping the SL's context.

Difficulties Facing Advanced Iraqi EFL Learners in Translating English Idioms into Arabic,and vice varsa

Hussein Mohammad Abdulhussein

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1100-1137
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170338

 
Abstract
The present study is a linguistic investigation of equivalence above word level. It deals with the difficulties of non-equivalence posed in translating English idioms into Arabic and vice versa, and the methods used by 4" year students of English to find the suitable equivalent in the target language. The aim of this study is to examine the type of difficulty students at this level face while translating idioms and tries to suggest solutions and identify strategies that may help to limit or avoid these difficulties. In this respect, a test is  made up of twelve English idioms and ten Arabic ones are given to fourth level students to translate them. The results of the study are  show that there are potential problems in the process of translating idioms from English into Arabic  and vice versa. Furthermore, the findings show that the context of use helps a lot of students of English to guess the appropriate meaning of idioms. They also continue the hypothesis and reveal that, except word for word translation, students' use of other translation strategies is limited.

Distance Education: Prospects, Technologies and Challenges

Arwa Luay Luay Abdulkhaleq .Asst. Lect

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1138-1155
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170339

Abstract
Distance education (henceforth DE) has gained momentum and become famous all over the world. It has become a feasible solution to increase worldwide access to education. This study examines the main outlooks, prospects, technologies, and challenges facing DE in line with international best practices, as well as the need to expand the benefits and interests of many learners. To present an accurate view of these aspects in this study, 20 samples referring to these aspects were randomly selected from different authoritative international universities. Then, observation and testing have been conducted to answer the research questions. Many prospects are being achieved by applying such a system of education. Moreover, the researchers identify many technical devices that have been used in this area with their advantages and disadvantages. Challenges are the most influential concepts that affect the whole process, its usefulness: development and success.
Key words: Distance education, prospects technology, challenges

Integrating Critical Thinking Skills in Teaching English Language Productive skills

Basim Yahya Jasim; Suha Abdulmohsin Yahya

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1156-1175
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170340

Learning a foreign language is not only mastering vocabulary and grammar rules. It is important that students know how to give opinions, give sound reasons for those opinions, evaluate and judge on specific situation. This is possible by integrating critical thinking skills into teaching English language productive skills. It explains how to enrich and develop students’ thinking and implementing it in the educational process and lifelong learning. The basic aim of the current research is to provide suggestions for integrating critical thinking skills into teaching English language productive skills. The current research ends with the conclusion that it is suggested to integrate critical thinking skills in teaching English language receptive skills for its valuable effect on developing students thinking, interaction and awareness as well as making them more interactive in the learning process.

Investigating Osloob al- Hakeem (Equivocation) with Reference to Arabic -English Translation

Ziyad Fadhil Rasheed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1176-1200
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170341

Abstract
“Osloob al-Hakeem” which means Arabic equivocation, or in English “Equivocation”, is an Arabic term referring to a kind of eloquent style of speech or writing. It is a frequently used style in the literature of Arabic whereas in English we have similar terms namely , equivocation and double speak. It has many rhetorical goals . The study attempts to identify this style, its types and objectives, with reference to the possibility of translating it into English. Further, it aims at finding the difference between this style and its equivalent in English. The study has showed that Arabic equivocation has eight objectives and has a special meaning that depends on changing the course of the dialogue to what suits the addressee and the speaker. It is found that Arabic equivocation differs from English equivocation in that the usage of Arabic equivocation is usually for positive reasons while English equivocation is usually for negative reasons. It is also found that couplet procedure in translation is the most appropriate in translating this style.
Keywords: Arabic equivocation, double speak ,the round meaning, foreignizing translation, couplet procedure

The application of Vinay and Darbelnet Model to translating the Names of QurĀnic surahs into English

Safwan Hameed Safi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1201-1230
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170342

In this study, the linguistic model of Vinay and Darblenet will be applied to translating the Qur’ānic names of surahs. In fact, this model is made up of seven main procedures with which the different texts of various meanings can be dealt. The names of surahs have been classified into twenty semantic fields, each one has a group of names sharing common notions. Practically, fifteen renditions of the names of Quranic surahs have been selected as samples for analysis. The name of surah are analyzed according to three levels: morphological, linguistic, and contextual levels, in order to specify the exact meaning precisely. Then, the renditions have been sorted under the seven procedures of the adopted model in accordance with the relevant criteria of each. Finally, the nearest and the most appropriate technique of such a surah’s name has been chosen after discussing all of the given renditions. The study concludes that the model adopted is highly applicable in this subject matter.

Translation Problems of Muqabala problems in Arabic Literary Texts into English

Anwar Al Janabi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1231-1252
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170343

Abstract
This study deals with the problems in translating Muqabala (opposition ) in Arabic literary texts. Muqabala term is a style depends on the principle of establishing an opposition between words, meanings, or ideas in order to achieve rhetorical goals and intellectual values.
The present study aims at exploring muqabala in Arabic, showing its translatability into English, and specifying some problems that may arise in translation process.
It is hypothesized that translating muqabala faces some kind of difficulty since the concept of muqabala does not exist in English. Thus, the linguistic and cross cultural differences may differ substantially in Arabic from English. It is also hypothesized that translating Muqaabala is a possible process, although it does not exist in English. The study concludes that muqabala has an important role in language use and most translators succeeded in producing the opposition between the words or expressions in one way or another. It is hoped to be useful for researchers interested in Arabic literature as well as teachers and students of literary translation.