Document Type : Research Paper
Imam Abu Na'im (430 AH) had a special status among the people of Sufism, and his attitude towards Sufism and its methods was of great importance to the people. Sufism spread widely in the era of Imam Abu Na’im as a religious and intellectual movement in the Islamic world. He asked for asceticism and purity of heart. Over time, his views became a path within Sufism, his slogan was asceticism and purification of hearts. He was the encyclopedia of his time; Despite his wealth of knowledge, he acted on it. After his death, he left many scientific works, and as he grew up in a religious family, he was one of the symbols of the era.
Abu Na'im knew Sufism, which was originally derived from a tribe in pre-Islamic times whose people had devoted themselves to Allah Almighty. They became famous for serving the Holy House of Allah and serving the pilgrims, and they were staying in the Kaaba, so whoever imitates them is a Sufi.
Then, he classified Sufism into two types: first, those who confirm the Sufis and their Imams, and second, the three types of those whom Abu Na'im has scolded and rejected; 1. Those who go deep into things and excesses. 2. Those who appear pure in appearance, but they are contrary in belief and deed. 3. Those who call themselves Sufis, but they are transgressors, atheists, (al-Haluliyah) and disbelievers.
And then, Abu Na'im al-Asbahani mentioned that the true Sufis based their mysticism on four pillars: 1. Knowing Allah Almighty and His names, characteristics and actions. 2. Knowledge of their souls and evils. 3. Knowing the enemy's whispers. 4. Knowing the world and its deceivers and how to avoid it.