The study aimed to measure the change in the level of vegetation cover in the Southern Mazar District for the years (1980-2021), using the vegetation coverage index in the GIS program, and remote sensing data from available satellite visuals covering the study area for the time period. The study followed the applied analytical digital approach, and the tools of the geographic information systems program. The study found that the study area witnessed a significant decline in the area of vegetation cover for the period between 1984 and 2021 AD, as follows:
• The study area witnessed a clear decline in the area of vegetation cover, in 1984 AD the percentage of vegetation cover was 89.4% of the area of the study area, while in 2021 it decreased to 48%.
• The decline in natural vegetation cover was significantly related, according to the vegetation cover index, to the annual rainfall rate. In 1984 AD, the area of vegetation cover was 334.9 km2, and the annual rainfall amounted to 468 mm for the same year, while the area of land covered by vegetation decreased to 190 km2 when the amount was Annual rainfall of 137 mm in 2021.
• The arid climate characteristics extend from the desert and semi-desert region on the eastern side towards the mountainous region on the western side.
• The impact of urbanization significantly on the decline of vegetation cover areas in the study area in general, and in the areas of the shrine, Mu'ta and Moab in particular due to the increase in the urban area, and the estimated amount of decline in the area of vegetation cover is about 1.1 km² annually.
Finally, the study recommended the necessity of taking quick and decisive measures by the decision maker to reduce the severity and speed of the decline of vegetation cover in the eastern parts of the study area, and to expand the study of the most affected species of natural plants to address the problem early.