Volume 18, Issue 2, Spring 2022, Page 1-1142


Ibn al-Skeet (d. 244 AH) and his approach to linguistic interpretation of verses from the Noble Qur’an through his book (Reformation of Logic).

Dhakwan Abdul Razzaq Khalil

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1-25
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174479

This research contains a systematic research study of the verses presented by Ibn Al-Skeet, who died in the year: 244 of the Prophetic Hijrah – in his famous book: (Reformation of Logic) Ibn al-Skeet was interested in the Book of Allah  Almighty for  the side of the Arabic language and its secrets, so we see it in his book from one side that mentions the intended words and then mentions their meaning, citing the Qur’an, hadith and poetry.  On the one hand, he mentions the expressions about the melody of the common people, as he often mixes them with talking about the eloquent words that he did not use
In this research, the researcher tackles the efforts of this linguist imam in interpreting the Noble Qur’an linguistically, through his book:
 

The impact of spending and charity verses on advancing the level of human development in Islam

Naqaa Talal Younes; Iyad Mohamed Hamed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 25-55
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174480

              This research came to present the impact of spending and alms in advancing the level of human development in Islam, as there are amazing facts on the ground; From poverty, unemployment, diseases and urgent needs to groups of the needy, and on the other hand, Muslims have huge wealth and money that can be benefited from, by investing spending money and alms in providing programs, training and rehabilitation to support and treat the problem of unemployment, as providing training opportunities for work helps to provide qualified cadres, It supports small projects that have a major role in solving the problem of unemployment and generating as high a cash income as possible, as charitable organizations provide the expected services to the community, through aspects of remunerative and legal investment, and this also requires strengthening and supporting the financial side of these charitable institutions. The importance of explaining the employment of spending and alms in human development, given that the human being represents one of the forms of capital on which other forms of capital depend, namely, physical capital, and social capital (infrastructure and dependency), as these forms cannot reach the optimum employment limit without Attention to the level of the most important element for achieving it, which is the human being. This study will show how spending and alms work to achieve investment in human resource development.

The types of servants of God Almighty in(32) a verse from Surat Fatir ((analytical study))

Zahraa Ahmed Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 56-88
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174481

The current   research involves an introduction and three sections followed by a conclusion. The first section is concerned with revealing the grammatical and rhetorical issues related to the Qur’an which involve the analysis of words and their expressions and rhetorical issues related to them. Whereas the second section includes what is directly related to the sciences of the Qur’an, including the appropriateness of verses, surahs, and readings. Last, the third section which is was specialized in the general meaning and the benefit of the text. Then, the conclusion is drawn to present the most important findings of the research.

Right/ Left Explaining the form of the “Bait” and Its Relation to the Pre-Islamic Poetic Consciousness from Neuro-Aesthetic Perspective

Hilal M . Jihad

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 89-113
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174483

With the exception of Ḥāzim al-Qarṭājanni, no scholar was able to interpret the form of the Arabic poetic verse (al-Bait) which consists of two symmetrical parts (al-Ṣadr wal-‘Ajuz). Based on the Aristotle’s idea of imitation, Al-Qarṭājanni explained al-Bait as an imitating mental image of the Arab tent. Though this is brilliant, it is still an inadequate interpretation. This paper attempts to introduce a new explanation by combining the phenomenological method with Neuroaesthetics via adapting some of its results to focus on the creative process itself. The paper, through theoretical and applied analyzes, reached a main conclusion that the form of Arabic verse is an allegorical image of the poetic consciousness which produced it, and an outcome of its metaphorical thinking represented by the interrelating of the function of the left hemisphere of the brain (thinking) and the function of the right hemisphere (imagination), which correspond to al-Ṣadr wal-‘Ajuz respectively.

The deep structure and superficial structure of the transformation elements of the transformed distinction in the Holy Qur’an

Abdel Moneim Abdullah Khalaf Hamid Al Dulaimi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 114-133
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174484

   The summary of our work "The Deep Structure and Superficial Structure of the Transformation Elements of the Transformed Distinction in the Holy Qur’an" is to prove the authenticity of this theory in Arabic, and how Chomsky was influenced by the science of Arabic. Then, the researcher chose the transformed distinction because it constitutes evidence of the Arabs’ awareness of the concept of transformation. So, after a deep reading of the theory and noticing applying it in several types of research, the idea of the transformed distinction from the positivist origin in the Holy Qur’an has emerged. An inventory of the issues books of the Holy Qur’an has been done, and it has been found in 159 places. While there is a study that has taken discrimination in all its forms in the Qur’an and it is far from what the current study deals with. The present study is the application of the transformative generative theory to transformative discrimination only. So, the research includes two sections. The first section is a summary of the theory and what the places of transformed discrimination are in the Holy Qur'an. The second section involves the application. Last, references are mentione

The body in the noble hadith of the Prophet, a rhetorical study in Sahih al-Bukhari

Ahmed Mowaffaq Hussein Al-Jubouri

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 134-154
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174485

                         The research reveals the rhetorical role of the human body as one of the methods used by the Messenger in communicating his call to the religion of truth. Polluted concepts, his heart and mind got a great deal of them, for the noble Prophetic hadith has given the human body a new artistic value represented in its reporting role in expressing precise meanings with which the Messenger - Peace be upon hi- addressed different nationalities and for all generations and at different levels of knowledge. The research reveals the rhetorical role of the human body as one of the methods used by the Messenger in communicating his call to the religion of truth. Polluted concepts, his heart and mind got a great deal of them, for the noble Prophetic hadith has given the human body a new artistic value represented in its reporting role in expressing precise meanings with which the Messenger - Peace be upon him- addressed different nationalities and for all generations and at different levels of knowledge

Time is a place in the poetry of Hazbar Mahmoud

Khadeeja Adree Mohammed; Khaled Shehab Hashash خالد حشاش

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 155-171
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174486

    The present paper, entitled ( The Placed Time in Hizebr Mahmoud's Poetry ) attempts to find out the overlapping between the elements of time and place in the poetic texts, as two essential elements that are indispensable in each literary work. Hence, the study tackles the poetic texts that involve the placed time, i.e. the time which is overwhelmed and landed by the place. Then, the study explained and analyzed each text conspicuously, so that it becomes obvious to the reader how time becomes a place, utilizing the metaphor that is capable to make the different textual elements     ( time, place and characters ) mutual in their roles in an exciting literary way that influences the reader, interested him, and get his attention.
     The present paper, entitled ( The Placed Time in Hizebr Mahmoud's Poetry ) attempts to find out the overlapping between the elements of time and place in the poetic texts, as two essential elements that are indispensable in each literary work. Hence, the study tackles the poetic texts that involve the placed time, i.e. the time which is overwhelmed and landed by the place. Then, the study explained and analyzed each text conspicuously, so that it becomes obvious to the reader how time becomes a place, utilizing the metaphor that is capable to make the different textual elements     ( time, place and characters ) mutual in their roles in an exciting literary way that influences the reader, interested him, and get his attention.
  The relationship between time and place is an existential one. It is not possible to imagine a life without them combined, as they are the two correlative elements of existence, and one cannot be separated from the other. This research aims to monitor temporal terms whose significance has expanded to characterize the attributes of a place.  So the texts could make what is    (( history ))a place on one hand and could make the word (( yesterday )) as a place on the other hand. Moreover, it could derive ((the era )) as a place too, and the rest of the times that became places including events and characters.

The expressions of human attributes narrated on the authority of al-Kisa’i in the book Gharib al-Hadith by Abu Obeid, a semantic study

Tariq Qassem Muhammad; Salah Al-Din Salim Muhammad

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 172-188
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174487

The current research is concerned with studying the words that indicate human characteristics in the Gharib Al-Hadith book by Abu Obaid (d. 224 AH), which was transmitted by Abu Obeid on the authority of Al-Kasai (d. 185 AH),as  a semantic study. It is based on the extrapolation of the expressions narrated from Al-Kisa’i, and then counting and arranging them according to their linguistic roots alphabetically. Then, the researchers identified of the honorable hadiths, and the hadiths of the Companions and the Followers (May Allah Be Pleased with Them) in which such expressions were mentioned from the hadith books. After that, the researchers mentioned the lexical significance of each expression from the different dictionaries.
The researchers adopted the dictionary of language standards for Ibn Faris (d. 395 AH) on those who preceded him as it traces the origins of such expressions and their various derivations. Moreover, and after completing the lexical significance of each expression, the researchers searched for semantic shades to show the impact of the context in determining the significance of the word in use.  The study is supported by mentioning the nobleQur’anic verses and poetic verses in which these expressions are mentioned. The descriptive-analytical approach is adopted which is based on the semantic field theory. Finally, the number of expressions of human characteristics narrated from Al-Kisai in the Gharib Al-Hadath book by Abu Obaid is sixteen

The role of literary criticism in sustainable development

Mohammed Jasim Mohammed Jbarah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 189-214
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174488

The research studies literary criticism through the term sustainable development in order to update the critical term and expand the field of study of literature. It studies the relationship of criticism with a number of topics common to literary criticism and sustainable development, such as education, culture, urbanization and heritage. I did not find a previous study of this topic, so I relied on a personal vision in linking relationships and choosing areas of research. Such as utopia, heritage, reader and language.

Money in the ancient Arab discourse / a descriptive study

Lubna Yarob Abdul Razzaq; Muhammad Ghanem Sharif

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 215-238
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174489

The criticism that arose in its beginnings accompanying the emergence of poetry was naive and elementary, characterized by partial, general, and comprehensive, so it needed time to be based on technical rules and a specific methodological taste and taste The ancient Arab critics were also encycloped, so the critic was a writer, narrator, a jurist, a scholar of hadith and a grammatical linguist. Hence the coinage varied and varied, and varied in terms of origin as well, some of them dating back to the pre-Islamic era, some of them dating back to the Islamic era and some dating back to the Umayyad Some of them were completely settled in the Abbasid era.

The customs and traditions of legacy and inheritance in the Arabs before Islam, which were approved by the Prophet,peace and blessings be upon him.

Naktal Yousif; محمد مظفر یحیى

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 239-254
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174490

        represents the social environment in any country, its vital depth and the vessel that expands its vocabulary and details, from which it takes The reasons are in communication, and he borrows the building blocks of his integrated statement, and from that issues of customs and traditions related to inheritance and legacy, as it is considered one of the old principles in those customs, which were marred by muddiness and denial, so it changed its course and muddied its description and pushed it out of the avenue, but this case did not completely tighten its grip on society. It was found from Arab cities and metropolises before Islam that gave rights to women, and the legacy was distributed in a manner consistent with justice, logic and objectivity in some way. For the young and the old, the woman, the man, the boy and the girl, which worked on the rule of logic and the distribution of the inheritance among the heirs as a whole and his share that corresponds to his tasks in life and his status from the deceased, so he combined justice, logic and comprehensiveness in It is a single framework, and preserves the social heritage that was prevalent before Islam.

Nizar Qabbani's Poetry in Algerian Academic Criticism (Psychological Criticism as a Model)

Eman Khudair Mohamad; Wassan Abdul-GhanZi Malallah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 255-276
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174491

          This research current aims to shed light on the Algerian academic criticism (psychological criticism as a model) in its study of Nizar Qabbani’s poetry by which Nizar was known in his poetry, especially in political works. Therefore, the research focuses on highlighting irony as a psychological complex that constitutes the main axis of psychological criticism in Algerian academic studies, according to the researchers' observation of it.
 

The effect of the Perkins and Blythe model on acquiring Islamic concepts for second-grade intermediate students in the subject of the Holy Qur’an and Islamic Education

Saad Muhammad Khudair

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 278-305
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174495

Holy Qur’an and Islamic education for the first intermediate grade, prepared by the researcher himself because there was no ready test in the subject of the Holy Qur’an and Islamic education. For the second intermediate grade, its validity and reliability were verified, and its stability value was (0,83). After the completion of the research tools, The current research aims to identify the effect of the Perkins and Blythe model on the acquisition of Islamic concepts by second-grade intermediate students in the subject of the Holy Qur’an and Islamic education in the academic year (2021-2022). The researcher used the experimental design of the control and the experimental groups with a post-test for both. The experimental group studied according to the Perkins and Blythe model, while the control group studied according to the usual method. The research sample consisted of (51) female students, chosen by the researcher intentionally with (25) female students in the experimental group and (26) female students in the control group. The researcher equalized both groups in some variables, including age calculated in months, the intelligence test, the parents’ academic achievement level, the grade of the Holy Qur’an and Islamic education for the first intermediate grade, and the general average for the first intermediate grade. Achieving the aim of the research required constructing a test for acquiring Islamic concepts in the subject of the he researcher applied the experiment for a whole semester. Then, the data was collected and analyzed statistically with the following results:
* There is a statistically significant difference at the level of significance (0.05) between the average scores of the female students in the experimental group who study using the Perkins and Blythe model, and the female students in the control group who study in the usual way in the achievement and for the benefit of the experimental group. In light of the results, the researcher presented a set of recommendations: the necessity of using modern teaching models, including the Perkins and Blythe model, in teaching the Holy Qur’an and Islamic education at all academic levels, and conducting a study to find out the effect of the Barman model in acquiring Islamic concepts for students of the fourth literary class.
 

اثر استراتیجیة IDEAL فی تحصیل ومهارات الترابط الریاضی لدى طالبات الصف الثانی متوسط فی مادة الریاضیات

omar mowafaq alabachi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 306-326
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174492

هدف البحث التعرف على أثر استراتیجیة IDEAL فی التحصیل و مهارات الترابط الریاضی لدى طالبات الصف الثانی المتوسط فی مادة الریاضیات ، وتحقیقاً لاهداف البحث أعتمد منهج البحث التجریبی, طبقت التجربة على عینة بلغت (70) طالبة بواقع (35) طالبة للمجموعة التجریبیة و(35) طالبة للمجموعة الضابطة من طالبات الصف الثانی المتوسط فی متوسطة (زبیدة) للعام الدراسی 2019-2020 ، کوفئت المجموعتان فی متغیرات )العمر بالاشهر ، درجات الریاضیات للصف الأول ، اختبار مهارات الترابط الریاضی ، درجة الذکاء) وتم إعداد متطلبات التجربة المتمثلة بتحدید المادة العلمیة وصیاغة الأغراض السلوکیة والخطط التدریسیة, ثم تم بناء أداتی البحث اختبار التحصیل فی الریاضیات تالف من (30) فقرة , واختبار مهارات الترابط الریاضی تالف من (16) ، وتم التحقق من الصدق الاختبارین من خلال عرضهما على مجموعة من السادة المحکمین فی العلوم التربویة والنفسیة وطرائق تدریسها, فضلا عن حساب معامل ثبات کل منهما, والتحقق من معاملات الصعوبة والتمییز لفقرات الاختبارین, وتم التوصل إلى وجود فرق ذو دلالة إحصائیة عند مستوى الدلالة(0.05) بین متوسط درجات طالبات المجموعة التجریبیة ومتوسط درجات طالبات المجموعة الضابطة فی اختبار التحصیل الدراسی واختبار مهارات الترابط الریاضی ولصالح المجموعة التجریبیة.

The effect of the information gap strategies and educational props on achievement and the development of visual thinking among fifth-grade students in science

Bushra Khamees Mohammed; Ali Ghassan Adbul kader

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 327-359
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174493

 
         The current research aims at defining the effect of the information gap and learning pillars strategies on the achievement and development of visual thinking for fifth primary class pupils in sciences. To achieve the aim of the research, the researchers put two main hypotheses and six subordinates. The researchers used an experimental model equivalent to pre-posttests. The sample consisted of (48) pupils within three schools chosen intentionally from private primary schools in Nineveh governorate Center for the academic year (2020-2021), divided into three groups, with 16 pupils for each group: the first and second experimental groups and the control group. The researchers equalized the three groups (IQ test, science degree average of pupils grades in fourth class, time age measured in months, academic level of parents, and pre- visual thinking test). The researchers used two tools: the first was an achievement test of (28) items, and the second was a visual thinking test in sciences of (25) items. The reliability of both tests was verified as well as its discriminating power. The researchers made plans for three groups (experimental and Control). The stability of achievement was (0.86), and that of visual thinking (0.84) using kodur Richardson 20 formula. The experiment began in the first semester of the academic year (2020-2021) And lasted for (11) weeks. The researchers taught the samples after teaching the subjects according to teaching plans prepared by researchers for the three groups. Researchers applied both tools to three groups later. The data was collected and analyzed statistically using unilateral variance analysis and chive test. Then, the results showed the outperform of both strategies over the traditional method.

Arts Teaching to Children According to NAEYC Standards from the Field Training Students’ Perceptions in Saudi Universities

Najla Essa Albaiz; Thoraya Abdulkhaliq Bin Kadasah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 360-386
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174496

This study aimed to reveal the attitudes of pre-service teachers about the importance of teaching arts based on the standards of the [NAEYC], as well as the obstacles that limit the quality of teaching. It also sought to reveal the statistically significant differences about the importance of teaching arts, which are attributed to the variable of the geographical area in which the university is located and the number of arts courses. To achieve the goals, a survey was built according to the NAEYC standards. A number of (446) students answered the survey. The results showed the students’ agreement degree was high about the importance of teaching arts, as well as there were number of obstacles.. The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences due to the variable of the geographical area and the number of arts courses. Therefore a number of proposals and recommendations were presented.

Evaluating the quality of the course content in e-learning from the point of view of its teachers Preparation

Manal Mohamed Ibrahim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 387-406
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174497

     The current research aims to evaluate the quality of the course content and how it is presented by e-learning in the schools of the Iraqi Ministry of Education from the point of view of secondary school teachers in the directorates of education in the province of Baghdad. The researcher used the descriptive analytical curriculum. To achieve the aim of the research, the data was collected by distributing a questionnaire to 385 male and female teachers, and the quadruple gradation that consists of agreeing with a degree (very large, large, medium, few) was adopted. The validity of the tool was confirmed by presenting it to a group of experts. After processing the data statistically, the following results were shown:  the number of verified paragraphs was (12) paragraphs, while the non-verified paragraphs were (10) paragraphs. The paragraphs had a high importance because of the quality of the content of the study material and the way of its presenting in e-learning. The order is as follows: "the teacher organizes the scientific topics and takes into account their logical sequence", followed by "the teacher seeks to E-learning accuracy in the information provided", followed by "the teacher in the e-learning presents the study topics in an organized manner", "teacher in the e-learning learning begins the lesson with an organized and interesting introduction" followed by", the teacher feels in e-learning, students emphasize the importance of the syllabus for its future development", followed by "the teacher in e-learning presents the study topics accurately and clearly". While the paragraphs of a low degree in terms of evaluating the quality of the content of the study material and the way it was presented and presented were: the "the teacher viewpoints related to the study topics", followed by "the teacher in e-learning is given references and sources to enrich useful information for students in the curriculum",  followed by "the teacher engages all students in the discussion of a topic in e-learning ", followed by "the teacher in e-learning shows the importance of any Internet skill or knowledge that students learn", and "the teacher in e-learning links the subjects of the course to the lives of students".

The role of Salah al-Din University in the trend towards a knowledge economy from the point of view of faculty members

Shleer Ali Saleh; Dhuha Mahmood Noumane

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 407-426
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174498

 
 
Knowledge is the basis for creating a new wealth in the economy. It is the source of creativity and innovation in the era of technology and knowledge. The importance of the study lies in the role played by the knowledge economy in the development of universities in general and the University of Salahuddin in particular. The decision in the university through the results presented by the study, which will explain the shortcomings in activating the role of the knowledge economy in the university, and the study aims to identify:
  - The concept of knowledge economics and its importance and knowledge of its basic pillars and tools and techniques and knowledge in all its aspects as much as possible to benefit from future studies.
- The role of knowledge economics in the development of Salahuddin University from the point of view of the members of its teaching staff.
- The difference in the views of the faculty members in determining the role of knowledge economies and the obstacles to activate them at the University of Salah al-Din due to gender, experience and scientific title.
The study reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which are:
1- The views of the faculty members on the male component in the first field of the questionnaire (the role of knowledge economy in the development of the university) and their equivalence in the second field of the questionnaire (obstacles to activating the knowledge economy in the development of the university).
2 - The views of the members of the faculty of the title of assistant professor was more positive than the faculty members with honors (assistant teacher - teacher - professor) in the field of (knowledge economy in the development of the university).
3 - Ownership faculty members with the title Professor views higher than the views of faculty members with honors (assistant teacher - teacher - assistant professor) in the field of (obstacles to the activation of the knowledge economy in the development of the university).
4 - The views of the faculty members with a professor above the views of the members of the teaching staff (teacher assistant - teacher) in the field of knowledge economy in the development of the university.
5- Exceeding the views of the teaching staff with experience (10 years and more) in the field of (obstacles to activating the knowledge economy in the development of the university.

The effect of adoption in 4H in the geographical survey of fourth-grade literary students in a geographical subject

عمر عبدالله

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 427-450
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174499

The research aims to identify the impact of the 4H strategy on the geographical survey of fourth-grade literary students in the subject of geography.
To achieve the goal of the research, the researchers set a null hypothesis, and to verify the hypothesis, a sample of fourth-grade literary students at Al-Hikma Preparatory School for Boys in the city of Mosul for the academic year (2019-2020) was intentionally selected. Division (B) is the control group and is taught according to the usual method. The total number of the research sample members reached (52) students, and the research sample was distributed by (27) students for the experimental group and (25) students for the control group, and the process of parity was conducted between the two research groups in the variables that were identified. So.
The research required the preparation of a tool, namely: the geographical survey scale, and its final form consists of (35) paragraphs, and each paragraph has three alternatives, and the validity, reliability and discrimination were verified, and all of them were within the acceptable range.
In light of the results of the research, the researchers made a number of recommendations, including that the Preparation and Training Unit in the Directorate of Education in Nineveh Governorate train geography teachers on how to use the 4H strategy.
To complement the current research, the researchers put forward proposals for future research, including:
The effect of the 4H strategy on the systemic thinking of fourth-grade literary students in geography and developing their cartographic skills.

Aslaf of Prophet Mohammed (Prayers and Peace of Allah be upon him) stance from The Islamic Da'wa till the end of the Message Era

Rana Salem Mohammed Al Hafo

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 451-481
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174500

Honorable ancestors subject is one of the topics whose information is covered in the folds of historical sources. The research tackles the concept of ancestors language & idiomatic. It also deals with the most important reaction & impacts of such ancestors in the history of Islamic call from the beginning to the ends of the Islamic call with their multiple positions that characterized by support, neutrality or even opposition to the Islamic call.
The characteristics of the Prophet ancestors are varied which make them similar to the Prophet (PBVH) in asceticism, courage, generosity and kindness with the poor, wisdom, and other qualities that prompted them to be related and close to the greatest historical figure. Likewise, most of the ancestors witnessed the life of the Prophet (PBUH) and the historical events that the Islamic da’wah experienced, However, there were ancestors who lived with the Prophet (PBUH) when they were young, but their age did not allow them to be ancestors of the Prophet (PBUH) during his life, but rather became His ancestors after His death. They were mentioned in the study with a small reference to their names because they did not witness the historical events of the Islamic call, and the events that they experienced lie outside the scope of the research title.
 

Media Performance of American Zionist lobby and its Role in Strengthening Hatred Speech for Afmerican Public Opinion

haind fakhry al-moula; Noureddin Fellak Fellak

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 482-507
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174501

Abstract:
Modern media play a very important and dangerous role of affecting local and intermational public opinion changing their role from presenting and alalysing news to major player to deform destroy deeply rooted values, replace them with different values affects deeply on comceptions, beliefs, ideas, behawiour of individ was and how they see counter part observer of performance of American media enterpreses feels that they present a very fake and deformed image of Arabs, islam, theit main issue Palestine because of Zionist lobby and its influence over American media, specially after 9/11. Media exaggerated in degrading Arabs, call them worst names, mock their civilazztion, scientific contributions, injustice of their cause Now the image inside the mind of common American and Public American opinion of Arab and Muslim society is attached to terrorism, violence and radicality and on the other hand madezionist Hebrew state enjoy sophistication, democracy and needs support and opprove. Thus comes the proplem of this research.
Are the great roles of American media affirmed values of peace, forgiveness and co existence among people and states? Or because of strong influence of American Zionist lobby strengthened hatred speed of American public opinion through this negative, deformed and fake image of Arab and Islamic societies in general and their central cuses in partieular. Thus American Media was not an honest mediator to give true objective media information.

الاستبصار فی عجائب الأمصار لمؤلف مجهول مصدراً لدراسة الأوضاع الاجتماعیة والاقتصادیة فی المغرب خلال القرن (6هـ/ 12م)

ghada kahtan hassan

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 508-539
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174502

Introspection in the provinces' Wonder of an anonymous Author as a Resource for studying the social and Economic Circumstances of Morocco during the 6th A.H Century /12th A.D
The author of AL-Estibsaar Fi Ajaaib AL-Amssar is one of the most prominent scholars of the sixth century AH / twelfth century AD, and his book which deals with the cities of the Maghreb is a model of the models of the Arabic-Islamic civilization that is characterized by diversity and holisticness . So, such a scholar, like other, needs to study his scientific material he presented to know its historical value from the social & economic sides. Hence, this study attempts to shed light on the nature of societies and to know their social customs and traditions and their economic conditions, which include agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.

Analyzing STRUCTURE OF ALZAHRAA QUARTER MARKET IN MOSUL CITY STUDY IN URBAN GEOGRAPHY

ghada ghanim median alzaidy; nashwan mahmmoud alzaidy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 540-571
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174503

          The area of traditional markets is not considered the  only focus of the only marketing which received the population of Mosul and its region . but the functional and structural exchanges  have faced the city especially after the expansion of its size and area . but many commercial focuses which appear  in Mosul city especially the commercial market of al Zahra quarter after 1986.  
           The variation in the pattern and the distribution of the marketing center in al Zahra quarter requires the city geography researchers to do distinct work through analyzing such a geography  to focus on determining its locations by studying  its geographicall distribution and to try  determining the levels of its importance which services the goals of urban planning when trying  to plan for it inside urban space .
          The commercial market of al Zahra contains 230 functional units and patterns the shops of sale and purchase are dominant  over  other patterns that about  172 commercial shops with 47,8 % the percentage from the total of shops is then the service shops which reach to 36 commercial shops and their percentage  from the total shops ,Finally  the other patterns from only  just 9,5% from the total of the commercial shops in the markets.

Geographical location and its impact on the size of cities in Yaqut al-Hamwi

Heba Salem Yahya Al-Sultan; Hadeer Mahmoud Aziz Idris

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 572-598
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174504

       The books of the prolific Arab-islamic geographical heritage represent the products of Arab geographers and travelers through their numerous trips and documented through them the multiple observations that resulted from their visit to many
places. Its beginnings are the center of prosperity and growth of human civilization. When travelers moved between cities for commercial or other purposes, they knew the Iraqi cities they visited, as they got to know their locations and geographical nature, as well as their importance in terms of size and its relationship to geographical location, not to mention their of city planning processes. In which the natural geographical foundations had an important role, and as a result of the originality of these geographical observations because they represent the Arab-Islamic civilizational values, it was necessary to stop at one of the most important travelers, Yaqout Al-Hamawi, and focus on his book (Dictionary of Countries), which this research relied on as a basic source, and Yagout lived Al-Hamawi in the seventh century AH and he died in the city of Aleppo in the year 626 AH/1228 AD. Therefore, this research came to study the geographical location and its impact on the size of the cities at Yakut al-Hamawi

 

Plant and agricultural handicraft and in the in Eastreu Arabic until the End A The prophet Mission's era

Doaa Hussein Obaid; nidhal muayad maal Allah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 599-660
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174505

This research aims to identify the crafts and industries of agricultural crops in the Arabian Peninsula until the end of the era of the message, which had a clear and important impact on the lives of the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula, where these crafts and industries are different, including food and bread making, as well as the types of bread that existed at that time. As well as the uses of food dates, in addition to the manufacture of wines and the manufacture of oils, as well as dealing with the wooden industries (carpentry), as well as identifying the tools used by carpenters in this important craft, and getting acquainted with wood and its multiple uses in many important areas, whether in peace or war, as well as the miswak uses that it has become. A great affair since the advent of Islam, and the manufacture of ships, weapons and trigger, as well as dealing with chairs and household appliances to save the materials and toiletries that women used at that time, which were made of wood, playing tools, fibers and sticks, as well as getting to know the architecture (building) that was present in the regions. The Arabian Peninsula, where the method of construction differs, and the identification of industries, including textile and sewing, as well as plant foodstuffs It is used for tanning, uses of henna and gum, uses of vegetable dyes, the manufacture of perfumery (perfume) and fodder, and palm trees and their uses, as well as to identify the trade of manufactured materials in the Arabian Peninsula, including internal and external.
 

طبرستان فی روایات ابن اسفندیار من خلال کتابه تاریخ طبرستان"دراسة فی الجوانب الاجتماعیة والاقتصادیة"

محمدعلی اسماعیل ویس

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 661-688
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174506

 
          The book (The History of Tabaristan) by Ibn Esfandiar is one of the important books that gives valuable information about this turbulent region, which represents a great challenge to the authority of the Abbasid Caliphate.  The  book is  worthy for  research and exploration as it sheds light on the cultural heritage of man in the various areas of life. Throught his works Ibn Esfondiar  is not only interested in monitoring political events and facts, but also in observing events related to cultural aspects that give the greatest benefit of information to the subject of research, including those contained in the book (History  Tabaristan), which included several topics about his country  various aspects of civilization .the researcher is divided into several paragraphs according to   the nature of the material available to Ibn Esfandiar required that the research be: -: the definition of  Ibn Esfandiar and his book,: Tabaristan,: Social aspects, and Economic aspects.

نـظــرات معاصرة فی الجـغـرافـیــا و التنمیة

Sultan Saead fadil Aljoubory

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 689-705
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174507

Geography studies the relationships and mutual influence between phenomena and  man from the point of view of cause-effect. This holistic  view of geography makes it the only science that studies several phenomena while targeting humans at the same time, The need for geography  remains urgent despite the existence of sciences specialized in studying the topics studied by geography; which leads  geographers gaining the ability to contribute in solving many global problems; and  preoccupation with several different areas of application.
This research aims to clarify  the nature and being  of geography and its subject, problems , changing its content and concept change , and its objectives, because of theier  importance for students of geography, to put  limits for geography science in the future by  following the inductive approach.

The Effect of Using Autogenic-Training in Regulating Emotional Arousal and Raising the Ability to Relax Among Female Volleyball Players

Nadia Talib Nory Mustfa Al-Jawady; Muaed Abdurazaq Hasso

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 726-763
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174559

The current research aims to identify the effect of the Autogenic-Training program in regulating emotional arousal and developing the ability to relax among female volleyball players.
. The researchers used the experimental method for its suitability and the nature of the research. The research sample included volleyball players in Qaraqosh Sports Club, and the sample was divided into three groups (two experimental and one control) by random selection according to age groups, using the lottery by (7) advanced players and (7) young players, and (6) players for the control group.
The researchers prepared a Autogenic-Training program, and it was applied to the two research samples, female applicants and young women, and before applying the program, measurements of emotional arousal and ability to relax were taken, and the same tests were repeated after applying the program.
After presenting and discussing the results, the researchers concluded that
1. The Autogenic-Training program had  a positive effect in regulating emotional arousal and developing the ability to relax for the two experimental research groups.
2. The two experimental research groups (young women and advanced ) outperformed the control group in the results of the post-measurement in the emotional arousal variable, while there was no stalistical significant difference  between the two experimental research groups (young women and applicants))
 
 

The effect of the comprehensive learning method according to the VARK model in developing learning motivation and learning a number of types of basketball passing

ali fattah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 764-787
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174560

The current research aims to reveal:
1.The effect of the comprehensive method according to the vark model and the method used in developing learning motivation and learning the skills of shooting from stability and peace in basketball.
2.The effect of the comprehensive method according to the vark model and the method used in learning a number of types of basketball passing
3.The comparison between the two groups, the control and the experimental, in the post-tests in developing learning motivation and learning a number of types of basketball passing.
    The researchers used the experimental method for its relevance to the nature of the research problem, as the research sample consisted of (24) students from the second academic year in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences - College of Basic Education - University of Mosul for the academic year (2020-2021) and they were distributed into two groups (group (control and experimental) and through a random lottery, the educational methods were distributed to the two research groups. Two educational plans have been developed for the two groups, and the program includes (16) educational units, the duration of one unit is (90).
     The researchers used the following statistical methods: (percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, simple correlation coefficient (Pearson), skew coefficient, (T-test) to indicate the differences between the means of the related samples, the (T-test) to indicate the differences between the means of the samples. Unrelated (independent).
The researchers reached the following conclusions:
1.Prove the effectiveness of using the adopted and comprehensive method in developing learning motivation among the current study sample.
2.Both my adopted and comprehensive methods achieved learning a number of types of basketball passing.
 

Positive thinking and its relationship to the level of ambition among teachers of physical education in Nineveh Governorate

ahmed saeed altaee

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 788-806
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174561

The aim of the research is to:-
1- Identifying the level of positive thinking and the level of ambition among male and female teachers of agricultural education in Nineveh Governorate.
2- Identifying the level of positive thinking and the level of ambition of physical education teachers in Nineveh Governorate according to gender variables (males - females).
3- Identifying the relationship between positive thinking and the level of ambition among male and female teachers of physical education in Nineveh Governorate.
The researcher used the descriptive approach using the survey and correlation method, and the researcher used the computer program (SPSS).
The researcher reached the following results:-
1- The positive thinking of physical education teachers in Nineveh Governorate is characterized by a high level.
2- The level of ambition of physical education teachers in Nineveh Governorate is characterized by a high level.
3- The positive thinking and level of ambition of physical education teachers are characterized by a high level, according to gender variables (males - females).
4- There is a relationship between positive thinking and the level of ambition among male and female teachers of physical education in Nineveh Governorate.
Recommendations and Suggestions:-
1- Urging male and female teachers in the Education Directorates of the Ministry of Education and School Sports Activity to organize educational lectures on the concepts of positive thinking and the level of ambition.
2- Conducting a similar study for other segments of society (employees, university professors, lawyers).

The physical self and its relationship to the accuracy of the performance of the shooting skill from jumping with the handball

mohammed mukdad Al-Rubaie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 807-819
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174562

 
1. Recognizing the relationship between the physical self and the accuracy of performing the shooting skill from jumping among Al-Fatwa handball club players.
               The researchers used the descriptive approach (in the correlative method) for its relevance and the nature of the research. The research community was chosen in a deliberate way from the Al-Fatwa Club handball players and participants in the Premier League (2020-2021) as the research community included (22) players, while the research sample consisted of (20) players after the goalkeepers were excluded and not included in the research experiment, and their number (2) was excluded  the exploratory experiment was conducted (4) on them, as the proportion of the sample from the research community was (%90.9), The statistical means necessary to process the data were used (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, Pearson correlation coefficient). The researchers concluded the following:
1. A non-significant relationship appeared between the physical self and the skill of shooting from jumping to the research sample.
The researchers recommended the following
1. Urging the coaches to be familiar with the psychological aspect of the players. Giving him more attention in training units.
2. Urging the trainers to pay attention to the physical self and its impact on physical and skill performance by giving some lectures on sports psychology.
3. The necessity of informing the coaches in some sporting events of what the concept of the physical self means.
4. Conducting similar studies and research concerned with research variables on different samples and levels.

Personality and its relationship to job performance among physical education teachers from the point of view of educational supervision

Ahmed Jasim Suleiman; Riyad Okab Meree; Dr-Basman Mahmood Ayoob Ayoob

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 820-849
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174563

The current research aims at standardizing and modifying a measure of personality traits applied to teachers in Nablus governorate in 2005 and to use it on the teachers of physical education in the representative Ministry of Education in Erbil, after presenting it to a group of experts in the field of psychological and educational and honesty, consistency, objectivity and statistical analysis, And compared to the annual evaluation of the supervision through the form of evaluation of the performance of teachers and teachers by supervisors specialists and educators in accordance with the standards for teachers to identify the relationship and exit recommendations appropriate, and in order to achieve this, the researchers used the descriptive analytical approach, and included The research community The teachers of the physical education in the Ministry of Education in the province of Arbil (325) teachers from three provinces (Nineveh, Anbar and Salahuddin) and distributed to (156) schools, the sample of the study has included (150) teachers of physical education distributors On sample construction and sample application. The data were statistically treated by the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentage, T test for two independent samples, Pearson's simple correlation coefficient.
The researchers determined the validity of the personality traits measure and the positive correlation between performance evaluation by comparing the annual teacher performance assessment form by educational supervisors and specialists, an annual assessment form approved by the Iraqi Ministry of Education.

Situational negotiating style of physical education teachers from the point of view of their school management in the center of Nineveh Governorate

احمد ادریس محمد

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 850-872
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174564

The aim of the research is to identify the situational negotiating style of physical education teachers from the point of view of their school administrations, and to collect data that required building and applying the situational negotiating style scale for physical education teachers of preparatory schools in the center of Nineveh Governorate, where the scale consisted of (33) items distributed over three patterns with (11) A paragraph for a pattern (permissive, strict, principled) after its formulation and verification of its validity and stability, the study sample was represented by the principals of middle schools and their assistants, where the construction sample included (114) administrators. Honesty and reliability, the construction sample represented (62.19%) of the population. The application sample amounted to (50) administratively, and (45) forms were retrieved, thus representing the application sample (27,43%) of the study population. The data was analyzed statistically using the statistical package spss, including the arithmetic mean and the percentage. The initial situational negotiator in his dealings with his school administration during the performance of his job duty, in addition to using some concepts related to the permissive and strict style emphasized by the administrative negotiation theory

Building and designing a test to measure the level of perception – kinesthetic for the skill of correction in the game of basketball

Saad Yassin Saeed Al-Obaidi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 873-890
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174565

Tests that are constructed and codified on samples representing the beneficiary community are more appropriate than others that are constructed and codified on samples that represent another community, where the researcher noticed that the training process with regard to the manifestations of sense – motor perception proceeds randomly through the training environment without there being precise exercises focused on the development of these mental processes directly, so the research problem arose, the research aims to test to measure the performance the level of perception of the shooting distance in the game of basketball , setting a standard for test scores and levels.
The researcher dealt with the theoretical framework of the stager of building the test and its classifications. included on players selected students , the research sample was selected by stratified random method, where the number of application sample (60) player, this number represents (22.72%) of the research community, the number of player (264), the researcher used the questionnaire, interview and test as a means of collecting information, as well as the use of the following scientific coefficients: persistence method re-test virtual honesty and subjectivity, and objectivity, and the researcher used statistical methods: mean, deviation correlation coefficient, test(t) for independent and equal samples, percentage ,loom, torsion coefficient, adjusted standard percentage score (6-&) .

*The most important recommendations were:

1 – Reliance on the standard tables revealed by the research in evaluating and evaluating the level of players .

2 – Take advantage of this test by coaches.

Research title "Assessment of Management Performance of Nineveh primary school principals from the Physical Education teachers in light of the Corona Pandemic "

Radwan Taha Yassin Taha Yassin

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 891-917
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174566

 
The current research aims at :-
1 - evaluating the performance of school principals in order to improve and develop the performance of school principals administratively and technically. 2 - Improving and developing the educational process. The researcher believes that the problem of the research lies in the fact that school principals face many challenges and difficulties that hinder their progress towards achieving their goals and objectives, which makes it imperative for school principals to work at a steady and deliberate pace to reform all aspects of the educational system. Primary in Nineveh Governorate from the point of view of physical education teachers. 2 - Detection of whether there are significant differences at the significance level (a ≤ 0.05) in the degrees of the sample members’ answers to the reality of evaluating the performance of primary school principals in Nineveh Governorate from the point of view of physical education teachers. The researcher used the descriptive approach in the survey method for its suitability and the nature of the research. The research community included physical education teachers in primary schools (right side) in Nineveh Governorate, who are actually attending for the academic year (2020-2021), amounting to 180 male and female teachers. The researcher used the questionnaire as a tool for data collection, where the researcher used a questionnaire prepared by (Qusay Fawzi Khalaf, 2009). The researcher concluded 1 - The lack of experience of primary school principals in managing schools using modern electronic methods in light of the Corona pandemic.2 - Weakness in the administrative aspect of some Principals of primary schools in Nineveh Governorate. The researcher recommended 1 - the necessity of continuity of the process of evaluating primary school principals at  the beginning of each academic  year and continues until the end . 2- Providing continuous and immediate feedback aimed at improving performance                                                                                                       

A cross-sectional study to evaluate the anthropometric measurements of middle school students in the city of Tikrit

omar Sameer Hamoo; عبد المنعم احمد الجنابی; ایلاف احمد الشمری

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 918-931
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174567

- Setting the lateral dimensions of the anthropometric measurements of middle school students for the three intermediate stages (first, second and third) in the city of Tikrit.
- Designing the profile grid for anthropometric measurements for middle school students for grades (first, second and third) in the middle school in the city of Tikrit.
- Identifying the distinctive anthropometric measurements of middle school students for middle school grades (first, second and third) in the city of Tikrit. The researchers used the descriptive approach using the survey method, and the research sample consisted of (342) middle school students in the city of Tikrit - Iraq and for grades (first, second and third) that were chosen by the stratified random method, then the process of obtaining data through (20) physical measurements she:
Body weight (1).
The lengths included (6) measurements:
(Total body length, torso length with head, lower limb length, arm length with palm, palm length and foot length)
- Oceans: It included (6) measurements:
(Chest circumference, abdomen circumference, hip circumference, thigh circumference, humerus circumference and calf circumference)
Symptoms: included (3) measurements:
(The width of the shoulders, the width of the chest and the width of the hips).The thickness of the leather folds included (4) measurements:
(The thickness of the skinfolds behind the humerus, the thickness of the skinfolds at the iliac process, the thickness of the skinfolds at the calf of the leg and the thickness of the skinfolds under the shoulder board).

The role of Salah al-Din University in the trend towards a knowledge economyfrom the point of view of faculty members

Shleer Ali Saleh; Dhuha Mahmood Noumane

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 956-975
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174568

Knowledge is the basis for creating a new wealth in the economy. It is the source of creativity and innovation in the era of technology and knowledge. The importance of the study lies in the role played by the knowledge economy in the development of universities in general and the University of Salahuddin in particular. The decision in the university through the results presented by the study, which will explain the shortcomings in activating the role of the knowledge economy in the university, and the study aims to identify:
  - The concept of knowledge economics and its importance and knowledge of its basic pillars and tools and techniques and knowledge in all its aspects as much as possible to benefit from future studies.
- The role of knowledge economics in the development of Salahuddin University from the point of view of the members of its teaching staff.
- The difference in the views of the faculty members in determining the role of knowledge economies and the obstacles to activate them at the University of Salah al-Din due to gender, experience and scientific title.
The study reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which are:
1- The views of the faculty members on the male component in the first field of the questionnaire (the role of knowledge economy in the development of the university) and their equivalence in the second field of the questionnaire (obstacles to activating the knowledge economy in the development of the university).
2 - The views of the members of the faculty of the title of assistant professor was more positive than the faculty members with honors (assistant teacher - teacher - professor) in the field of (knowledge economy in the development of the university).
3 - Ownership faculty members with the title Professor views higher than the views of faculty members with honors (assistant teacher - teacher - assistant professor) in the field of (obstacles to the activation of the knowledge economy in the development of the university).
4 - The views of the faculty members with a professor above the views of the members of the teaching staff (teacher assistant - teacher) in the field of knowledge economy in the development of the university.
5- Exceeding the views of the teaching staff with experience (10 years and more) in the field of (obstacles to activating the knowledge economy in the development of the university.
 

Difficulties of learning skills in gymnastics among students of the Faculty and Departments of Physical Education and sports sciences in Nineveh Governorate

Mohammad Ali Mohammad Baqir Ali Mohammad Baqir Baqi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 932-955
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174569

The aim of the search is to:
- Identifying the differences between learning difficulties for the skills of men's gymnastics and women's gymnastics for both male and female students, each separately.
    The sample consisted of (450) male and (150) female students, while the researchers used two scales for men’s gymnastics and consisting of (55) items, and women’s gymnastics, which consists of (61) items, which were designed through a doctoral thesis of one of the researchers, and the foundations were found The scientific method has validity and reliability, while the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, one-way analysis of variance, and Duncan's test were used as statistical methods.
As for the results, they were:
 - There are difficulties in the skillful learning of the jumping platform and parallel devices about ground movements among students of physical education and sports sciences.
- The ground movement equipment, the balance beam and the jumping platform were equal in the level of difficulty for the female students of physical education and sports sciences..

Effect of non-thermal plasma using the isolation barrier vacuum reactor (DBD) on seven broccoli cultivars

Ahmed Saadi Hussein jaber; Safa Aldeen Abdullah Sulymain; Akeel Husine Ali Al-Assie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 976-994
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174570

Seed treatment with a DBD isolation barrier vacuum reactor. Using the drainage of the insulating barrier in the air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, the effect of non-thermal plasma treatment of seeds on the development rate of seven broccoli cultivars cultivated in Mosul (Al Rashidiya) was investigated. The use of DBD at atmospheric pressure had a significant influence on germination and plant growth of the seven cultivars of broccoli from the seeds used for a period of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 minutes as compared to the control group. In comparison to the control sample, the favorable effect of plasma therapy on seedling growth for the timing (0.5 and 1 minute) had the optimum timing of exposing (broccoli) seeds to plasma from 3, 5, 10, 15 minutes. On the other hand, a negative effect was found after the seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for an extended period of time. The explanation for this might be due to the mechanical effect of the process of exposing seeds to plasma therapy, which resulted in a decrease in plant development and vitality when compared to the time of 0.5 minutes. These findings revealed that the newly constructed cold plasma reactors may considerably increase seed germination and plant development; however, the plasma processing duration for each seed must be tuned.

Study the effect of defects on the quantum efficiency of perovskite solar cells

hajar Khalil Ibrahim; Ahmed Mohamed Salama; Qais Thanon Algwari

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 995-1010
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174571

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have generated considerable interest in the field of solar energy. With the rapid development of fabrication technology, high efficiency, environmentally friendly perovskite solar cells are becoming more attractive as candidates for power generation. Defects in the absorber and interface layers of mixed lead halide perovskite solar cells reduce the efficiency and stability of the cells. The current study examined the impact of defects density, defect capturing cross-section, defect level, and defect type on the quantum efficiency (QE) of the absorber layer. Furthermore, the impact of defects in the hole transport layer/absorber and electron transport layer/absorber interface layers is also be extensively studied. SCAPS-1D will be used to simulate perovskite solar cells in this work. The perovskite solar cells structure proposed is FTO/ ETM/ absorber/ HTM structure based on TiO2 as ETM layer; Cu2O as HTM layer, and on CH3NH3PbI3 as absorber layer. According to the results, the quantum efficiency QE reduced sharply from 90.2% to 20% with varying the density of the defect Nt and the capture cross-section carriers σ in absorber layer from 1015 cm-3 to 10 18 cm-3 and 2×10-13 cm2 to 2×10-10 cm2, respectively. Additionally, it is discovered that the capture cross-section carriers exhibits behavior similar to that of the absorber layer's defect density.

Cultural Adaptation of Loan Words in Mosuli Arabic: A Sociolinguistic Study.

Raghad Qaydar Ghanim Alsamman; Ismael Fathi Hussein AlBajari

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1011-1028
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174572

This paper investigates the cultural adaptation of loan words in Mosuli Arabic from a sociolinguistic perspective. It aims at investigating the extent of the sociolinguistic factors, namely: age, gender, social class and educational attainment, influence on loan words usage in Mosuli speech community and also investigating the effect of the environmental factor, in terms of the surrounding regional effect, on Mosuli Arabic. It is hypothesised that the sociolinguistic factors have influence on the rate of loan words usage in that community and that the environmental factor has influential effect in entering loan words into it. To achieve all these, a sociolinguistic modified model is adopted which is based on a theoretical framework, namely: Poplack et al (1988). Informal interviews are conducted with forty-eight native Mosuli speakers divided equally according to sociolinguistic factors (namely: age, gender, social class and educational level) to calculate the rate of loan words used by each subgroup and, then, analysed in the light of the adopted model. This study finds that the sociolinguistic factors affect loan words usage in Mosuli Arabic. Although Mosuli speech community has a shared strategy for incorporating loan words into Mosuli Arabic discourse and that there is a uniform pool of loan words in Mosuli speech community and each speaker chooses from this pool, there is a slight tendency for one subgroup to use loan words rather than its counterpart. It is observed that female, old age, low class and illiterate groups incline to use loan words rather than their counterparts.

Discourse Analysis of TV News Headlines

Abeer Khalaf Hussein

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1029-1057
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174573

This study investigates features of TV news headlines. Discourse analysis is used as a method for studying news headlines in question. The model adopted is an eclectic one. The approaches of Olowe (1993), Van Dijk (2000), Van Dijk (2013) on text analysis were utilized to examine the data. The analysis involves three levels of analysis: Grammatical, linguistic and ideological. The study aims to explore whether the linguistic features of TV headlines among different news channels vary according to the channel orientation or not. It also seeks to highlight the grammatical structure of news headlines and examine the various TV headlines' differences with their respective ideologies. It is hypothesized that through the sample channels have different orientations, they use the same structures and techniques in their headlines.
Moreover, due to this difference, it is hypothesized that there is a difference in the ideologies. Consequently, the headlines will have sometimes hidden meanings to be conveyed indirectly to their readers. In addition, the study sheds light on discourse markers used in news headlines. Data analysis shows that most headlines carry the same linguistic and grammatical features with little focus. Diversity in orientation has its obvious effect in some channels. A small number of discourse markers is used in news headlines. The researcher has come up with findings that validate the set hypotheses.

Ellipsis in Mosuli Arabic Discourse: A Functional Pragmatically-based Study

Ismael F. Hussain Al-Bajjari; Arkan Kadih Abdallah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1058-1085
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174574

This paper is an attempt to study ellipsis and the elliptical strategies used in Mosuli Arabic discourse from a functional pragmatically based perspective. It aims at investigating the types and functions of ellipsis, alongside the elliptical strategies employed by Mosuli Arabic speakers in the everyday discourse. In order to achieve this aim, it is hypothesized that: (1) Ellipsis and elliptical strategies are frequently used in Mosuli Arabic daily situational discourse with specific functions, (2) Ellipsis is pragmatically oriented, hence  contextually interpreted (3) Ellipsis, as communicative strategy in Mosuli Arabic interactions, falls into several types  and functions. A descriptive qualitative method is used in this study. Three episodes of a sitcom are chosen as a data reflection to Mosuli every-day discourse. The data utterances, after their collection, transcription, and identification, are analyzed on the basis of a functional pragmatically based model, which is built on certain theorizations taken from two well-known models; namely, the textual model of Halliday and Hasan (1976), and the pragmatic model of Grice (1989). The study has found, due to the results obtained by data analysis, that Mosuli Arabic interlocutors, when engaged in a conversational discourse, use, by violating, flouting, clashing, or opting out CP maxims, certain elliptical strategies with specific intended communicative functions. In this regard, it has been found that such breaking procedure is recovered and interpreted contextually within the relevant conversational implicature, underlying the elliptical utterances, which is activated by the pragmatic dichotomy; 'presupposition' and 'inference'. As a striking conclusion, ellipsis, along its strategies, types and functions realized in the contextual situations considered here, is daily used in the Mosuli Arabic discourse, where it is proved to be pragmatically and linguistically determined by the cultural ideology of Mosuli Arabic speech-community.

Impact of an Instructional Model Based on Social Interaction on Students’ Motivation

Shoaib Saied Fahady; Saddam Mohammed Hameed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1086-1100
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174575

      The present research aims at investigating the impact of an instructional model, based on social interaction, on developing college level students' motivation to learn English. The second-year students at the Dept. of Educational and Psychological Sciences / College of Education for humanities / University of Mosul for the academic year 2020-2021 represents the population of the study which include 97 male and female students distributed between the morning and evening classes. The sample includes 50 morning classes students after excluding some students. The sample has been divided into  two groups  (experimental and control ) 25 students each. A questioner of 16 valid and reliable items has been prepared and adopted by the researchers . The  instructional model , which has been designed by Al-Fahady (2012) , has been applied in this study to teach English for students at non-departmental courses. After collecting and analyzing the data, the findings show the statistical effect of the applied instructional model in acquiring and developing students' motivation to learn English. The findings also do not show an impact for gender variable in the study . The researchers recommend to include the steps of this instructional model in the syllabus of the method of teaching in the Dept. of English and to train teachers to apply .

"Spatiotemporal Correlates of Mind Map in the Translation of Arabic Lexical Units into English"

محمد نهاد احمد

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1101-1126
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174576

This paper demonstrates that the mind map is a uniquely well-suited correlation of lexical units. The various functions of lexical items are correlated by cognitive analogies between various domains of thoughts, namely: the spatial and temporal correlates of mental states during communicative interaction. The aim of this paper is to analyze the cognitive capabilities of translators to perceive the lexical correlations between lexical units in both English and Arabic. The first point of contact between lexical units and the mind is related to the domains in which correlations can be used by the translators. The main hypothesis put forward is that the use of lexical concatenation in the epistemic domain involves the lexical relationships between premises of concepts and mental capabilities. This comes from the specific meaning of some connectives that require the manipulation of conceptual structures. The paper concluded that translators may vary with respect to the degree of the mental capacity to create lexical correlations between units of both English and Arabic. This is due to the different cognitive capacities of translators to create correlations of using lexical items during the translation process

The performance of Perovskite solar cells with silicon carbide as an interfacial layer

Dena Nameer Qasim Agha; Dena Nameer Qasim Agha

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1127-1143
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174577

The current work involved the numerical simulation of investigating the impact of conduction band offset (CBO) on the perovskite solar cell parameters. The solar cell structure under investigation comprises the (Spiro OMe TAD), (CH3NH3PbI3), and (SnO2) as HTL, the absorber layer, and ETL with electron affinities (χ) of (-2.45, -3.9, and -3.75) eV respectively. The conduction band alignment was controlled by inserting an interfacial layer between the absorber and ETL. The inserting layer is a thin layer of 3C-SiC material. Before utilizing the interfacial layer, a parametric study was attained, which included the doping variation and thickness variation of each layer. According to the findings, the device performs best at a thickness of 200 nm, 400 nm, 300 nm for HTL, perovskite absorber layer, and ETL respectively, with a doping concentration of 1019 cm-3, 1014 cm-3, and 1019 cm-3 for the same layers. These parameters provide a Jsc, Voc, FF, and PCE of 26.1 mA.cm-2, 1.11 V, 83.23%, and 24.19% respectively. Utilizing 3C-SiC as an interfacial layer with thickness 100 nm and doping 1018 cm-3 improved the performance of the device. According to the electron affinity for the proposed structure (the absorber layer and ETL) with the interfacial layer produce spike-spike band alignment. The results showed that the spike-spike band structure with (1= 0.07) eV for absorber layer with 3C-SiC and (2=0.08) eV for 3C-SiC interfacial layer and SnO2 as ETL, produces a good improvement in the cell performance with an increase in PCE (from 24.19 % to 28.36 %).