Volume 18, Issue 4.1 (Proceedings of the Fourth International Scientific Conference 26-27 sep 2022), Autumn 2022, Page 1-1286

The impact of Mosul historians during the seventh century AH on the translation books of Ibn al-Adim as a model

Maha Saeed Al Khafaf

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1-23
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177078

                The seventh century AH / thirteenth century AD was characterized by the emergence of the product of a number of Mosul historians, and they played a major role in writing down the historical events that took place in the city of Mosul or other Arab Islamic cities, through their contemporaneous events or what they wrote down in their books that reached us. While the narrations of Ibn al-Adim, whose source was the historians of Mosul, varied between narrations related to Mosul and its men, and others concerning the city of Aleppo and its scholars, and it is one of the most important sources that the historian Ibn al-Adim relied on in his book (in order to request in the history of Aleppo), but the importance of these remains The novels being circulated in the last era are different from being oral and written novels .         

Prof. Dr. Imad Abdel Salam Raouf A study in his scientific biography

Ourba jameel Mahmood

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 24-53
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177079

 The research aims to study the scientific biography of Prof. Dr. Imad Abdel Salam Raouf as an academic historian known for his abundant knowledge in terms of publishing literature, publishing research, articles, and participation in seminars and conferences
It became clear to us his great love  for studying  history and  delving in to it ,and his  family   had  a great  role in  building  his  intellectual  formation by providing the appropriate conditions  for him to study  in the best schools in  Baghdad and benefit    from its  libraries.

Professor Dr. Taha Khuder Obaid, and his Scieutific efforts to Upgrade the Level of Academic Education at University of Mosul.

Fathe Salim Humydi; Aqil Mohammad Khuder

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 54-73
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177080

The research attempts to throw light on the scientific efforts of   professor Dr. Taha Khuder Obaid  to upgrade the level of academic Education at Mosul University  and the development of historical studies through his published books and researches.
          Professor Dr. Taha Khuder Obaid is regarded one of pioneer Professors at the University of Mosul ,in a specialty whose speciality is  Islamic and Byzantine history. He  has clear fingerprints In Islamic and Byzantine Studies. His  published books are (13) books. He has also published about 50 scientific historical studies and researches. He has a special interest in studying in the  history of Mosul City, particularly   during of the Abbasid Period. His last book  (Studies on Mosul in Abbasid era) confirms his love for Mosul and his  affiliation to  the City of Mosul.

Educational conditions in the Mosul Brigade in the second half of the nineteenth century

Mahir Hamed Jassim Al-Noora; Ahmed Jassim Hmmud

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 74-89
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177081

The educational conditions in Mosul suffered from neglect for a long time, due to the fact that during the Ottoman era, Mosul became a scene of wars and invasions, and since the mid-nineteenth century, Mosul began to witness signs of a gradual transformation in the field of education represented in the emergence of modern public, private and foreign schools, in the context of the reform movement The Ottomans (Tanzimat Era 1839-1876)
Laws were issued and measures were taken to improve the conditions of education and subject it to state supervision. In the year 1846, a law was issued calling for the principle of free and compulsory education, and the following year the Ministry of Public Education was established, “Amour al-Maarif al-Amami Nazrati,” and the Public Knowledge Law was issued, “Public Knowledge, Systemamah C” in 1869, despite these reforms. Which was carried out by some Ottoman governors, but it did not leave a trace in Mosul until the last decade of the nineteenth century. An elementary school was established in it in the year 1861, and it included classes for the intermediate stage (Al-Rushdiyah) until the year 1890 when the primary school separated from the middle school. As for the second school, which opened In Mosul, it is the School of Trades, which was founded by Midhat Pasha in 1871. As for the Mosul Encyclopedia, it was founded in 1894.
          In our research tagged (the educational conditions in the Mosul district in the second half of the nineteenth century), we discussed the conditions of education, represented by the religious schools and schools in Mosul at that period, because they included the boys’ and girls’ schools, as well as religious (scientific) schools, and official primary and civil schools for boys. and girls.

Islamic discourse and the problematic of its reading in the light of religious texts

Azhar Hadi Fadel; Hussein Jaber Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 90-107
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177083

Speech is an important means of communication with humans, individuals and groups, in addition to its importance in shaping the mental environment and mental formation of the human being, guiding individuals and changing the reality of societies from one case to another.  From this point of view, the discourse was characterized as moving and changing with specific goals and objectives.
 As for the concept of religious discourse, it refers to the understanding of religion in the light of the data of the age, stipulating the existence of a person who is reconciled and aware of his time, who participates in it efficiently and who relies on a religious authority in addressing it, its rulings and its statements.
 This paper deals with the problem of reading religious texts (Islamic as a model), a new reading that keeps pace with developments in light of religious and sectarian pluralism, a reading that is a reason to move the receiver’s horizon, and legislate the horizon of interpretation, and aims to achieve peaceful coexistence between different individuals with different religious and sectarian orientations.

Iraqi support for the cause of Tunisian independence in the United Nations

Bashar Fathi Jassem Al-Akidi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 108-119
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177084

Iraq was not far from the developments of political events in the regions of the Maghreb. The political orientations of the monarchy in Iraq emphasized the support and support of all Arab countries to achieve their freedom and independence after World War II. Perhaps the political weight of Iraq at that time and its role in establishing the United Nations Organization helped him. adopting these positions.
Tunisia is one of the Arab countries that was subjected to French colonialism, such as the worst forms of Western colonialism through the practices that France used to pursue towards the people of the country, as well as the exploitation of the wealth and capabilities of Tunisia to serve its interests, goals and aspirations. On the other hand, the Tunisian national movement was moving after the Second World War to show the extent of injustice and injustice. Tunisia is being exposed to by France, and Iraq had a major role in showing that injustice and supporting the Tunisian national movement represented by a group of Tunisian parties that appeared on the political scene at the time.

The administrative role of the Quraish families in Andalusia (138-422 A.H / 756-1031 A.D.) (Hijaba and the police as a Example)

Faiza Hamza Abbas; Elias mohammad Ibrahim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 120-132
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177085

             Andalusia was a state affiliated to the central caliphate in the East in the era of the rulers, and it was not independent of itself, and the administrative systems were similar to what exists in the state of Africa, and the governor in Andalusia had agents who helped him in running the state, and the role of the Quraish families was limited, and after the arrival of Prince Abdul Rahman bin Muawiyah, Andalusia became independent About the Levant and the development of the veil and police systems began in Andalusia, As the insider was aware of the two systems due to what the Umayyad ancestors had reached in Andalusia, and the usher in Andalusia was the mediator between the sultan and between the elite and the parish. To organize work, and this system developed in the era of the Umayyad Caliphate, as the hajiba in Andalusia became the highest authority of the ministers, and he was the link between them and the Umayyad Caliph. Sometimes the pilgrim took over the veil and the ministry together, as happened in the era of Nasser, and the position of the veil deteriorated in the late era of the caliphate in Andalusia, when the conditions of the Andalusian authority came to him from weakness and disintegration, as the sources did not mention anyone who took this position, but the police system was the other one of the positions The task in Andalusia witnessed a development at the hands of the rulers of the Umayyad family in Andalusia, and it was sometimes called the owner of the city or the owner of the night, and this system became two positions, namely the owner of the high police and the owner of the middle police, and the task of the owner of the police was to look into grievances and establish borders, In addition to the main task, which is to maintain internal security, the selection of the policeman was not in vain, but rather those who meet the required conditions are chosen. The owner of the police assumed many tasks as the state of the market until the era of Abdul Rahman Al-Awsat came and separated them. Great, middle and small, and during the reign of Al-Mustansir, he was called the commander of the sea.

The political conditions of the establishment of the Alrasuliya State (626-858 AH / 1229-1454 AD)

Muhammad M Muhammad Bahauddin

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 133-147
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177086

The Alrasuliya State is one of the countries that had a bright history in the rule of Yemen through their achievements and works in terms of urbanization and civilization, the effects of which remain to this day and have educational exploits through their construction of schools in the country and interest in education and culture and various aspects of life as well, and we discussed this Address the factors of the establishment of the Alrasuliya State until its fall.

Political power in Voltaire's thought

Bashar Farouk Abd; Ammar Zahir Mosleh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 148-168
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177087

Voltaire was able to influence the political power, and his influence was clear and prominent. He was able, through his early criticism in the years of his life and direct to everyone who sits on the throne of France, to disrupt the system and culminate in all of this with the publication of his famous book (The Philosophical Letters) in 1734 AD, which It was rightly considered, as described by one of the historians, that it was the first bomb that Voltaire threw at the edifice of the old regime (the edifice of the Middle Ages with its teachings, systems, customs and traditions)
In addition, the Philosophical Letters considered Voltaire's first public and direct rebuke to the political and religious authorities - and this in itself set a dangerous precedent in the history of France at the time, and through it, Voltaire paved the way for the French people to begin to think of free will and freedom of thought regarding the question of change, as He gave way and gave the green light to other critics or philosophers like Rousseau and others to follow the same approach.
It should be noted that Voltaire was not an extremist in his ideas, as some might understand, especially with regard to the political aspect of his propositions. For example, he did not criticize political authority for a personal interest, such as dreaming of sitting on the throne of the king. Rather, his criticism of it was for the purpose of reforming it. This helps, so this change of hers on the one hand, and on the other hand, when Voltaire approached politicians or kings, it was not for material gain, for example, or in order to obtain some privileges, which were granted at the time to some nobles, but rather, he was approaching them in order to use them as an indirect weapon in order to achieve his goal of reform. (if this is in France)
As for outside it, he may have wanted to try this method in another country, hoping to come up with something different from what he gained from France, and by virtue of travel and many moves, he was able to meet several kings and get acquainted with most of the regimes that ruled Europe, and then came his proposals and treatments regarding the political aspect and which he wrote At the end of his life, deep, original and well-studied proposals, and his political criticism came as a demand to reform the ruling political system in France in particular and Europe in general.

Connection between Abu Zakariya al-Azdi's by Ta'rkh al-Mawsil and Ta'rkh Khalifa bin Khaiat (Introductory study)

Maysoon alAbaychi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 169-187
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177088

     Abu Zakariya al-Azdi's "Ta'rkh al-Mawsil" suggests to  that it is about the local history of Mosul. However,after investigating and reading the book ,it is seen that its material is beyond the domain of the history of the city ,especially the remaining part of it which concern  the period (101-224 A.H./719-838 A.D.)  It is full of historical events from the late period of Umayyad history(41-132A.H./661-749A.D.):and the starting of remaining part to the Abbasid reign (132-656 A.H./661-1258 A.D.) Hence forth ,many questions should  raise ,What are the sources that Al-Azdi had depended on in recording the outer events of Mosul? Among those sources is Ta'rkh Khalifa bin Khaiat (Died 240A.H/854A.D) ; its name appeared many times in Al-Azdi"s book .hence forth,the importance of this research comes through treating many points required by the method of  the research . These Points are the modes adopted by Al-Azdi in quoting from Khalifa and the comparison between two historian's recounting in order to access the method adopted by Al-Azdi .

Funeral customs and traditions in Andalusia Social custom and religious tradition

Kassem Abd Saadoun Al-Husseiny

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 187-211
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177089

Death is the inevitable end of all human creatures, and it is an inevitable death that awaits every soul and obsession that dominates people’s minds and causes sadness in their souls, and that is because a dear person has taken his breath, left the world and joined the supreme companion, so that sadness and pain begin, the sadness of parting and the pain of farewell. And the Andalusians, like the rest of human societies, were distinguished by their funerary customs and traditions that distinguished them from the rest of the societies. As soon as the conquerors set foot in the Iberian Peninsula, they started constructing cemeteries, organizing them and taking care of them. Therefore, the Andalusian cities witnessed multiple cemeteries whose names were inspired by the names of the saints and the righteous and divided them into: public cemeteries and private cemeteries. Others are dedicated to those who have died of epidemic diseases. And the Andalusians spread their dead and the funeral processions differed according to the status of the deceased. Political circles among the public, which witness humility from them and increase their attachment to them, so they walk on their feet in respect and reverence for the personality of the deceased, and perhaps some of them went riding and disembarking in front of the funeral. I moved to the Far Maghreb, and it seems that they violated what was prevalent in the countries of the East, where wearing black was an expression of sadness for the dead, and the Andalusians also mourned their dead with poetic poems that were dominated by the nature of sadness and pain, so these poems spread in Andalusian society and Andalusian sources were filled with this kind of The poems and the so-called literature of condolences appeared, and the funerary traditions in Andalusia contained scenes of the wills of the dead through which they are buried. We knew these commandments and summarized their religious and funeral implications. And due to the necessity required by the nature of the subject, the researcher resorted to using the descriptive historical method based on linking historical events and facts in order to reach reliable results. The study was organized with an introduction, two sections, and a conclusion. The first topic was devoted to the study of Andalusian cemeteries, highlighting the emergence and organization of these cemeteries. The second topic was devoted to the study of funeral customs and traditions in Andalusia and the innovations and rituals that accompanied them that contradicted the Islamic religion. her to study.

The geopolitical factor and it's impact on the city of Mosul during the exits of Aloled bin taref Al-Share 177 A.H/ 793 A.D and AI-Ataf bin Sufyan AL-Azadi unrest 180 A.H/ 796 A.D

Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 212-225
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177090

Mosul has always been target of khawarej trials to get for tified inside city or better occupy it due to the mega effect of it's location for the rest of euphrates penninsula Lands . throughout Islamic history, this city suffered from its location because of its open boarders time takes astand against the people of the city, to blame and hold resposibility the results and consequences of khawarej occupying the city . However, every time religion men curb caliphs for the safety of this city and its people .

The Canaanite city of Shechem and Tel Balata before the construction of Nablus and the strategic importance

Amna Abu Hatab Abu Hatab; Ali Hamza Abbas

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 226-239
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177091

Shechem is a Canaanite city that means the place "the bent" or "the high place", and the Torah mentioned that Jacob, peace be upon him, when he came to Shechem and authorized him to go down next to it, the city's ruler was Hammour Al-Hawi the Canaanite, and he had a son named Sheki, meaning the same name of the city, which confirms that the name of Shechem The city is a Canaanite pronunciation and meaning. The Canaanites are one of the tribes that migrated from the Arabian Peninsula and settled in Palestine in the third millennium BC, where Palestine was known by their name, so it was called the land of Canaan in relation to them. One of their tribes that descended on Shechem was the Hivites, and archaeological excavations indicate that the Canaanites established the city of Shechem in the middle of the third millennium BC, in the middle of an area rich in springs.
Nablus is one of the important Palestinian historical cities that shaped and painted the history of Palestine and its land witnessed important events, and passed through very important developments and events, in addition to its land being the scene of history, civilizations and monuments, and therefore it is an important historical city, its strategic location contributed to giving it greater importance:
The study aims to:
1- Clarify the importance of the city of Shechem,
2- Clarifying the importance of Nablus, the Canaanite and its strategic illiteracy.
3- Learn about the most important civilizations that inhabited the city of Shechem in the ancient era

Carol Hillenbrand and Writes in Islamic History

Musab. H. Najem Al Zadey

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 240-257
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177092

 The Research takes to Study Life of British ,Carol Hillenbrand  which she is Specialist in Islamic history and her Writers. As for as it is Spotlight on her big Role in Support for Studies Islamic and Orient in British Universities. It  aims to her science prizes which is taking for as long expand Science life that it is about Half Century.

The political role of the Mamluks during the reign of Sultan Qansuh al-Ghuri (906-922 Ah/1501-1516 AD)

Hussam al-Din Talal Mahmood; Fathi Salem Hamidi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 258-283
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177093

The Mamluk era witnessed the emergence of a new political group of Mamluks known as the Mamluks, which are distinguished from the Mamluks known as the Mamluks, that their members are adult Mamluks, and their ways of arriving in Egypt differed from migrations from their countries of origin, because of the increasing demand for them, because of the increasing demand for them, Every new sultan was going to buy a number of these Mamluks to strengthen his nervousness and secure his throne, and not only the sultans, but the desire of the princes was present in order to strengthen their position in the Mamluk state..
The first beginnings of the appearance of the Mamluks date back to the reign of Sultan Peppers Al-Fazdari (658-676 Ah/1259-1277 AD), and specifically to 659 Ah /1260 AD, where a small group of them came to Egypt preparing By the dozens, and then they entered Egypt over the years in the ways mentioned, so the sultans began to enjoy them high positions until their influence increased and their power strengthened, so they controlled many of the joints of the Mamluk state, and many of the robes were rebelling against their authority and their princes and the senior statesmen instead of their attacks On the markets and the public of people by killing and looting in order to achieve their interests, which had the worst impact on the political life of the Mamluk state, where the reign of sultan of the Mamluk sultans was hardly without rebellions, sedition or conspiracies for them, including Sultan Qanswa al-Ghuri(9) 06-966 Ah /1501-1516 AD), where his reign witnessed many of these works, oblivious to the difficult situations suffered by the Mamluk state both internally on the one hand and the absence of the state treasury from money, as well as externally on the other hand represented by the Ottoman danger.
Despite the absence of state offices and the loss suffered by the Mamluk forces and the killing of their Gori sultan in the battle of Marj Dabiq in the month of Rajab/922 Ah /1517 AD, and in these critical situations continued their misdeeds, they were the reason for the instability of the Mamluks, and therefore its collapse and the establishment of the Ottoman State by Sultan Salim I in 1923 Ah /1517.

Mechanisms for building the rule of law in Iraq

Shaima Rafi Sultan; Zaid Rafi Sultan

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 284-303
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177094

The modern state in its general sense, since its inception until today, has witnessed many  developments, whether in its structure or in the functions it performs, and thus moved from a state subject to the control of the individual ruler with absolute powers over the material and human resources of society as the patriarchal ruler to a state in which the ruler is bound by the law and the constitution and is subject to control and question From the state of personalization to the state of the institution, that is, the state that depends on institutions and in which the rule of law prevails, it enacted constitutions and legislated laws and tended to make of its members citizens with equal rights, freedoms and duties. On the Iraqi experience as a case for study and research

History of E-Learning and its Stages

Ahmed Jamil Sulaiman Al Dulaimy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 304-314
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177095

     When we talk about E-Learning, we have to talk about the process of learning in general which started when the ancient man started learning his children the skills of hunting and gathering fruit, beside his traditions. His ducational environment was his home at that time, neither teachers nor schools.
     The idea of Distance Learning or E-Learning is related to each other, and it was submitted by the French teacher in Berlin Jan Tosan and his friend Gustave, the member of Modern Linguistic Association in Berlin in 1856, as the first institution for language distance learning.
Therefore, the Nineteenth Century is regarded as the real birth of E-Learning. It’s appearance before that was not
Documented well. E-Learning is defined as learning via post, it helps learner who cannot attend to the educational institutions. Educational content had been gathered and sent to the learners via post through post offices which were separated at that time.

The Biographies of the People of Wasit Ibn al-Shaar al-Mawsilli (654AH/ 1256AD) : A Study in the Sources

Hanan Al-Sabawi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 315-329
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177096

The book of "Qalalid al-Juman fi Faraid Shu'ara hadha al-Zaman " by Ibn al-Shaar al-Mawsilli is considered to be one of the most important biological books with great historical values. There is yet another merit of the book which is its broad spatial domain of the biographies of Ibn al-Shaar al-Mawsilli.  Of the cities that Ibn al-Shaar wrote about their people in his work of "Qalalid al-Juman" , is the city of Wasit. Due to the importance of this city , Ibn al-Shaar al-Mawsilli mentioned more than 45 biographies that covered nearly all the scientific specializations with the years of their births and Deaths varying between the 6th and 7th Centuries AH and the 12th and 13th centuries AD.  The sources of the biographies varied from direct oral tales to indirect oral tales in addition to written sources which are in the second position. Thus, the importance of the biographies that were done by Ibn al-shaar about the city of Wasit can be clearly seen.

Dar Al-Hadeeth AL- Muhajiriya and Al-Mudhafari in Mosul (Historical study)

Huda Yaseen Yousif Al-Dabaagh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 330-347
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177097

The science of hadith has received a great deal of attention from the people of knowledge and their students, therefore they embraced it with great passion, drawing from it listening, reading,writing, classifying and publishing. The city of Mosul  had a group of distinguished hadiths scholars who came from the faraway and nearby Isiamic lands to retail about them Houses for teaching hadith were established in them,the most important of which were the Muhajiriya House of Hadith and the Dar al-Hadeeth al-Mudhafari,in which many sheikhs and scholars studied .Houses for teaching  hadith were places for preaching and giving advice, and for retailing hadith and meeting scholars, in addition to authoring religious works,especially in the field of hadith ,and this undoubtedly had a positive impact on the Arab Islamic civilization.

A study of the situation of minorities in Iraq after the American withdrawal In 2011

Hind Fakhri Saeed; Bayan Farr's Nasser

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 348-369
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177098

Radical changes occurred in the political, social and economic reality of Iraq after the US occupation in 2003 AD, and these changes continued to be severe even after the withdrawal of US forces in 2011 AD and the Iraqi state taking over the reins of power and its attempt to control the situation and fill the political and military vacuum, but the challenges were great and needed a lot of efforts to confront and address, and the truth is that Placing minorities was at the top of the list in those challenges
Until the issue of minorities became a card on which several internal and external parties, internal and external, took advantage of their sensitivity to achieve goals that varied in their impact between injustice and oppression that fell on that category and between a national project that it seeks to build to raise the reality of minorities and the embarrassment of their situation, which has worsened severely after the political and military vacuum left by the American withdrawal from Iraq, which threw strongly at the unstable security reality of minorities and affected the demographics of their presence in Iraq, where this fragile situation of minorities necessitated the need to study and review all variables and attempts to address..

The role of the Arab Gulf and its impact on interaction Civilization with the East

Alaa Nafia Jassim; Zainab Kamel Karim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 370-388
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177099

The Arabian Gulf is characterized by a distinguished geographical location, as it is on the outskirts of the three continents, Asia, Africa and Europe, and this strategic importance has not been erased by scientific progress in communications or progress in transportation. It is fertile for cultural communication and interaction of all kinds and openness to all civilizations, and since we are part of that site, Iraq, with its civilizations, has certainly affected those cultures and civilizations coming from distant ports, as the Arab Gulf region was affected by what these cultures benefit from, and therefore the Arabian Gulf has been throughout the ages an orbit The continuous civilizational interaction to this day, which we would like to show in this study.

Iraqi Women’s role in social and intellectual work- Sister Assemblies and Muslim Women’s forum example

Eman Abdulhmeed Mohamed al dabbagh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 389-407
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177100

This study attempts to highlight the role of sister associations and the Muslim women’s social and intellectual forum in caring for women and preserving them form perverse ideas, it is educated in an Islamic culture including through religious educational and polite lessons and lectures, printing and distribution of Islamic books, letters and leaflets among the people as well as opening summer courses to teach the holy Koran and other educational courses, seminars educational conferences and others, as well as the interest of the two associations in opening schools in their various educational stages and the interest in helping those in need, various material and moral aid, the two associations have received widespread attention and acceptance in the feminist community.

The role of religious authority in the twentieth revolution The supreme religious authority, Sheikh Muhammad Taqi al-Shirazi, as a model

Qahtan Hamid Kazem

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 408-478
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177101

      The research deals with an Iraqi national figure who played a key role in mobilizing political events in Iraq prior to and during the 20th National Liberal Revolution. Iraq and the handover of governance to the Iraqis. This character is represented by the top reference Sheikh Sheikh Taqi al-Ha'iri Shirazi.The research reached several conclusions, the most important of which are: Sheikh Mohammed grew up in the martyrs in a family interested in science and knowledge, and his character was characterized by many qualities, and good manners, and subdued, and asceticism in the martyrs, and renounced the discrimination between the sons of one nation, and his courage and feet against the British occupation .From (1919-1920). The leadership role of Sheikh Mohammad Taqi al-Shirazi was characterized by two first periods, starting from his leadership of the religious authority in May 1919 and continued until March 1920. It was characterized by strengthening the role of the religious authority in opposing British projects and solving some of the problems faced by the national movement and taking a peaceful approach in dealing with the administration. The British continued to obtain the rights of the Iraqi people, and stressed the need to maintain peace and security, and not to shed blood, and continued the second period until his death on (August 17, 1920),where he took a firm position represented by authorizing the use of armed force to achieve the Iraqi national goals Declaration of the revolution against the British occupation. Sheikh Shirazi succeeded in winning over the majority of the Iraqi people.
In addition to being a scholar and a brilliant political scientist, Sheikh Shirazi was able to exert great pressure on the British inside and outside Iraq, and he was able to incite the Iranians against British policy in the interest of Iraq and its independence. The aspirations of the Iraqi people for liberation and independence. Another role of the religious authority in the revolution of the twentieth is to mobilize, direct and put forward slogans and goals that reflect the national and Islamic content of the revolution, and work to spread the spirit of enthusiasm through speeches delivered in mosques and Husaynat or through the issuance and distribution of publications in various regions of Iraq. The jihadist fatwa of Sheikh Shirazi had a great impact in saving Iraq from the British occupation and made it march on the path of independence. In one of the sons of Sharif Hussein, the throne of Iraq.
Al-Shirazi refused to distinguish between the components of Iraq and its various sects, and treated everyone equally after them citizens who have the right to live well in their 

Peacemaking in Iraqi Educational Institutions After 2003 The (Concept and Application)

Bashar Hasan Yousif

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 479-502
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177102

The subject of peace is considered one of the important and vital subjects because of its positive impacts on various levels particularly the political, religious, social and cultural ones. Starting from this point; we can say that peace making is a responsibility of all the institutions of the state. And as far as the educational; institutions are of the most important institutions, therefore they must be involved and concerned in peace making in order to be able to spread that culture and enhance it to become a daily behavior in dealing with the others. From this point comes the importance of the study to focus the light on peacemaking in the Iraqi educational institutions as a complete system starts in kindergarten and ends the various collegiate levels in addition to their moral and educational tasks that they are to achieve and affect positively in promoting the contemporary societies.
The current study is divided into two sections. The first deals with the concept of peace and its pivots through two sub-sections, the first one tackles the concept of peace and its importance and the second tackles peace making bases represented by toleration, conversation, accepting the other's culture, and human rights. The second talks about. The second is devoted to study the mechanisms of peacemaking in the educational institutions, it falls into two sub-sections, the first one tackles governmental policy through focusing on the governmental support for the educational institutions and the improvement of the quality of curricula. The second sub-section, tackles promoting the educational reality through the role of the educational and teaching staff and the students activities in the educational institutions.

Pictures of religious tolerance in the Ziyarid emirate (316-471 AH / 928-1078 AD)

Muhammad Ali Ismail, Wais Ibrahim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 503-520
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177103

 The society in the Ziyari Emirate included many social elments and groups, including: the Persians, the Turks, the Kurds and the Arabs, as well as the dhimmis of Christians, Jews, and the Magi.  The people of dhimma lived under their control a life of tolerance and freedom, the Ziyarid emirate represented them the golden age, so they lived next to the Muslims   Religious.                                                                                     
This study dealt with the definition of religious tolerance, the definition of the Ziyarat emirate and the statement of the princes’ tolerance towards the people of dhimma, and the basis of dealing with them and their conditions and how restrictions were lifted from them, and how they gave them complete freedom in worship, work and dealing with them on their holidays and special occasions                                               

The image of the Umayyad Caliph Marwan bin Muhammad (127-132 H/744-749 AD) according to historians of the third and fourth centuries AH

Okab Youssef Juma; Ahmed Mahmoud Mohamed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 521-539
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177104

    The era of the late Umayyad caliphs witnessed political fluctuations, opposition movements, family and tribal conflicts, and the emergence of the Abbasid da’wa. Marwan bin Muhammad from the religious, political and administrative point of view, and what is the effect of that image on the future of the Umayyad state and the factors for its downfall, and the extent of the caliph’s responsibility for that, according to what the writings of historians of the two centuries provide us with information.

"Image of Abdullah bin Abbas (may God be pleased with them) in the community of the Companions"

Nidal Muayyad Mal Allah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 540-578
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177105

     Ibn Abbas, may God be pleased with them both, had a standing with the Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, and he called for him in jurisprudence and interpretation, so he became a scholar of a nation, and in the era of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, he was close to them and all the Companions. And the research was divided into two axes, the first axis was his image with the Rightly Guided Caliphs (may God be pleased with them) and the second axis was his image in the Umayyad era until his death, and it was adopted in Research on the descriptive and analytical method.

The nature and impact of commercial relations between the Islamic Maghreb and the Italian cities in the Almoravid era

Maher Abdullah Fleeh Al-Shammari; Ahlam Saleh Wahb

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 579-605
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177106

This study involves the trade relations between the Arab Maghreb Countries and Italian cities in Almoravids Era, and learned about the depth of land and sea commercial communication between the Maghreb and Italian cities and the reflection of this commercial development on the two regions. The resulting cultural, political and cultural prosperity during Almoravids Era (448-541 Ah/1056-1147 AD) and knowledge of the most important factors helping to establish commercial communication between the two countries and commercial centers.

A reading in the manuscript of Majmo` Al-Bustan Al-Nouri by Sultan Al-Ghuri.Abd al-Basit al-Malti (died 920 AH / 1514 AD)

Raed Amir Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 606-633
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177109

Manuscripts are an important part of the heritage of the Islamic nation and its authentic identity
Hence, I chose an important manuscript that I found in the Hagia Sophia Library in Turkey, which is a positive step in publishing manuscripts on the Internet, as it represents an extension of that desire to study the complex ones, dive into the depths of words, and revive the book after it was locked in time. And the place, the study and investigation is not a vague or absurd act as many claim, rather it is, contrary to what they claim, an authentic and organized act through which he tries to reveal the heritage of this nation, its civilization and its originality, as the author takes us in his new book, to a civilization that has perished and reached its ends. determinism, and it has become an ancient heritage, for the manuscript's revival of this heritage calls for the absent meanings to the scientific arena.
Study Tuition Tuition Tuition Tuition Study Tuition Tuition, the author of the sons of a ninth-century prince. .

The Research's name: one of the most Prominent books in the Genealogy, Al-Zubair bin Bakar Through his Book (Jamharat Nasab Quraysh Wa Akhbàruhà).

Maha Asa'ad Abdul-Hameed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 634-657
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177167

 The Book (Jamharat Nasab Quraish Wa Akhbaruha) is considered as one of the most important books for the Arabs' parentages because of its documental chain for Quraish (One of the biggest Arabs' tribes) and its parentage. So it is represented as a source of History and Parentage because it had such a perfect accuracy and documentation for the Quraishi's Parentage. So that any researcher cannot write about Quraish's Parentage unless he studies the Chain of Parentage of the book with respect to the fact that its writer was one of the noblest writers of Narration during the third migration decade ( Al-Zubair bin Bakar bin Abdullah bin Musa'ab) . For this reason, his encyclopedic and scientific accuracy became the brightest sides of his Character.

Police System in the Age of the Sultans of Delhi (602-817AH/ 1206- 1414AD)

Leqa Khalil Ismail Yahya Al-Ghazali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 657-679
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177168

The research aims to shed light on the police system in the era of the Delhi Sultans (6.2-817 AH / 1206-1414 AD), the country of Delhi, like many other countries, relied on the police system in maintaining its security and stability, which necessitated the establishment of the police system Supporting the army to help it perform its military tasks and functions and provide security and the resulting economic prosperity in all parts of the country, and the police system represents one of the components of the administrative system in Delhi, although we did not find anything indicating the use of the term police, but the name kotwal appeared, and it is Police chief, This position is similar to that of the military governor of the castle, and he is responsible for maintaining security and preventing disturbances, whether inside the castle or in the surrounding areas, and he is responsible for the castle in the absence of the sultan.
The research relied on a number of sources and references related to the history of Islamic India

Conclusion Bistun inscription of King Dara I (522 - 486 BC) An analytical reading of its religious connotations and its political implications

Saad Abood Sammar

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 680-710
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177169

This study will shed light on the religious Contents of the Bistun inscription belonging to King Darius I (522-486 BC) and its political implications. The study included several demands: the location of the inscription, and why did he choose it? The origin of the name Bistun, which has a religious aspect, the languages ​​of the inscription and its writing, and what the inscription included in two parts of the inscriptions, the first: the prominent or three-dimensional inscription of (the god Ahwarmazda, King Darius, and the captives), and the second section: it includes the historical events (522-21-5). m) which occurred in the first years of his rule, namely his victories in nineteen battles, and his capture of nine kings of the rebels against his rule.

The migration of the Rabia tribe to the country of Beja in the third century AH / ninth century AD

Yasser Musleh Aziz

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 711-724
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177170

The Rabia tribe, which is one of the Arab tribes that lived in the Hijaz in the Arabian Peninsula, and the lineage of the Rabia tribes goes back to the children of Ismail bin Ibrahim (peace be upon them). A large number of them are in al-Yamamah, and the other part migrated towards Iraq after they heard about the availability of water and pasture in southern Iraq, and they used to call Iraq in the past the land of blackness because of its abundance of bounties and orchards and for its fresh water and rivers. The second factor that led the Rabi’a tribe to emigrate was the large number of wars and fighting between them, the most important of which was the Al-Basous war, which lasted for nearly forty years between the bellies of the Rabi’a tribe, the Bakris and the Taghlibis. The third factor that had a role in the migrations of the Arab tribes, including the Rabia tribe, is the emergence of Islam and the beginning of the Islamic conquest movements, which has a role in leaving many Arab tribes from their areas and heading to new areas, including the Rabia tribe, and large numbers of the Rabia tribe migrated with the campaign of Amr ibn al-Aas towards Egypt and settled in Egypt, and in the third century AH, they headed with the Islamic campaigns to the country of Beja, where there were 
many gold mines and emerald stones, in order to settle in Wadi Al-Alaqi, where the gold mines are.

Unity of geography and history between the Iraqi and Libyan peoples From the Italian occupation of Libya to independence 1911_1951 AD

Arwaie Muhammad Ali Qenawi; Nihaya Muhammad Saleh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 725-751
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177171

The unity of geography, history, origin, religion, language, customs and traditions, culture, hopes, and common pains between the Arab brothers in Iraq and Libya had an impact on Iraqi solidarity with the Libyan people in their plight during their resistance to the Italian colonizer since the occupation on October 5th, 1911 - until the announcement Independence on December 24th, 1951 AD.
These positions have emerged at the popular and official levels in regional and international organizations, which helped the Libyan people to obtain their freedom, the independence of their country and the unity of its national land.

Reform regulations and laws in the Ottoman Empire 1861-1839 AD

Nevin M. H. Saad; Emad A. Youssef; Ameen G. M. Al-Hafo

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 752-781
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177176

The Ottoman Empire witnessed a reform movement in which some of the sultans of the Ottoman Empire contributed, whether in moving the reform process or supporting the reformers who had the largest role in these reforms.
The research reviewed the reformers in the state and opponents of reforms and the lines of Kul Khanna and Humayun and the factors driving their issuance and other reform laws and the new law of 1851 AD and the penal laws of the year 1858 and the Code of Judicial Procedure, then the judiciary and courts and then the new administration in the era of organizations.

The interest of Imam Malik in his Morocian students

Alyaa H. al-Mashhadani

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 782-795
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177107

Many Morocinan students concentrated on learning much more of Imam Malik as what the eastern Islamic world students did that was due to the good reputation of Imam Malik ,religiously ,scientifically and sociologically . Ayiadh ,the judge, recorded in his book "tarteeb Almadarik" almost twenty _one Morocian student whom met such Imam in the city , som of them , then , were main persons to deliver "Almalikiya" in Morocco ,Gradually ,they became the pioneers of that ideology (Almalikiya) in Morocco , as well as the main reference for others.
            When dealing with the historical texts that dealt with the biographies of those students , a special relationship could be realized between some of them and Imam Malik as he accepted what they did , even after being back to their own regions, they kept in touch with him , Also, Imam Malik kept on getting their news from other Moroccian who visited him and that led us to shed light on such a relationship and study it thoughtfully , taking the relationship of both Abdullah bin Ganim and Abdullah bin Farookh with Imam Malik as a good instance .
            The abore_mentioned fact will be discussed in such a study in three ways: First we shall deal with the signs and reasons that could explain his interest in his Moroccian students second, the ways with wich Imam Malik keeps in touch with Abdullah bin Ganim as the first example we have and that shows the continwty between Imam Malik and his Moroccian students then , comes the third pant which includes the ways with which Imam Malik keeps in touch with Abdullah bin Farookh , presenting at the same time other aspects of such relations .

The Islamic Experience in Egypt 2012-2013 "historical study"

Bushra Mahmoud Al-Zobaie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 796-815
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177082

The birth of the partisan experience in Egypt dates back to the beginning of the twentieth century, when the Egyptian national movement, in the face of the British occupation, resulted in the birth of the National Party, led by Mustafa Kamel Pasha. However, its real birth came after the 1919 revolution, which produced a revolutionary leadership that crystallized organizationally later on. Through the emergence of the Wafd Party, led by Saad Zaghloul Pasha, which represented the revolutionary forces, which carried the banner of achieving the demands of the revolution. And next to him came other parties described as (minority) parties. Egyptian political life knew the culture of elections and the transfer of power. Despite the interventions of the palace and the occupation, which spoiled the experience and emptied it of its content.
The failure of the partisan experiment to provide a solution to the national issue, and its neglect of the social issue, caused the July 1952 revolution, which began with a military coup led by the Free Officers Organization. The July 1952 regime dealt with the previous situation through a policy of total demolition. So he decided to finish off the partisan experiment through the decision to cancel political parties. In 1953, after a series of actions targeting the partisan political elite.
After that, Egypt followed the so-called one-party system or the one totalitarian organization, whose name was changed from (the Liberation Committee) to (the National Union), then to (the Socialist Union), to (Egypt’s Party) to (the National Party) – the buried – which monopolized ( His publications (The Authority) have been around for nearly 60 years, all of which are multiple names for one entity.
Party life is one of the most important features of the democratic development of any society, and its launch requires concerted efforts between the various political forces. In order for us to have true partisan pluralism, in which several strong parties compete, possessing intellectual ingredients, organizational capabilities, financial and intellectual capabilities, and enjoying democracy far from personality and individualism, and representing real mass bases, so do not be mere elite salons, as mature partisanship is a prerequisite for the launch of the democratic experience

The Effect of Terrestrial Manifestations on the Spatial Distribution of Rural Settlement in Zaweta Sub-District

Sherzad Adulaziz Abdulrahim; Khudhur Rashid Abdulrahman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 816-833
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177177

        The study of rural settlements is one of the important aspects in population and settlement studies, but the terrestrial features are linked and affect them, and also have a role in determining the pattern of their distribution, The settlement reality of any site is an environmental reflection of the region, and many studies have emerged that are concerned with researching the settlement reality, its size, shape and lifestyle. This study came to determine the effect of the land appearance in determining the distribution pattern of rural settlements in Zawita sub-district.

The impact of the increasing number of traffic accidents on deaths in the city of Mosul for the period 2017-2021

Hala Hassan Ahmed Al-Dabbagh; Nada Emad

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 834-861
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177178

Traffic accidents are one of the most dangerous contemporary phenomena that impede the development and development in a society, especially accidents that increase the number of deaths in general. Therefore, our study was on traffic accident deaths only in the city of Mosul for the period 2017-2021 because of its importance in studying the geography of the population. The research also dealt with a study of the age and qualitative structure of traffic accident deaths and its effects on the lack of population growth, due to its increase in the present time as a result of the increase in the population of the city of Mosul, whether resulting from immigration or emigration, or whether through births and deaths in it, and the research also touched on The trend of deaths for the same period, whether at the level of the governorate or the city in particular, and it was found that the deaths of traffic accidents inside the city are close to traffic accidents at the level of violation for many reasons, including speed first, the possession of vehicles for teenage children secondly, and the lack of control or adherence to the rules of traffic lights thirdly, and there are also reasons Others that we may mention later, but in terms of geographical distribution, the researchers deliberately avoided addressing them because the majority of traffic accidents are distributed within the city. A general form in order to avoid repetition when studying the geographical distribution, as well as adding the causes of traffic accidents in the city and the ways that the individual must follow to avoid traffic accidents.

Extracting the hydrological characteristics of the Quiesy Basin using the SCS-CN

Saleem Hassoo Alyas; Suhaib Hassan Khader

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 862-894
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177180

       This research aims to study the characteristics of the Quiesy Basin, whose area is (220,02 km2), which is a seasonal primary runoff located in the north west of Iraq, using the Soil Conservation systems (SCS-CN) model, and using GIS, The process of merging a number of pellets (land uses, soil fao and depth of rain) and then obtaining theirdigital eraser CN, which in turn was possible to obtain other characteristics, the maximum potential for the chandeliers to retain water after its flowing hand reached( S), the first extraction (Ia), the depthof runoff (Q), Flow Volume (QV), where is the importance of the basin from the hydrological point of view, as the values ​​of )CN( in the basin increased, where the average values ​​were (84.7), the average values ​​of (S) ( 48.38m), and the average of values ​​was (Ia) (9.67m). As for (Q) the average value was (188.29m), while the volume of (QV) in the basin was (414287.2m3), These resuts constitute a database aimed at the development of the basin.

Using of remote sensing and geographic information systems In the study of the vegetation cover index in Algerian steppes

Hadjadj Nadjat; Hadeid Mohamed ,; Kious Chehrezed Chehrezed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 895-906
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177181

The present research paper aims to study and shed light on the spatial change of vegetation coverage in the Algerian steppe region. The investigation is based on remote sensing and geographic information systems through the analysis of satellite visuals in calculating the vegetation coverage index (Ndvi) for three different periods 1985 and 2022, with consideration to remote sensing and information systems.  Geography is among the most important digital means that work to collect, analyze and study the geographical field in all its dimensions, and it also works to follow up on the changes taking place in it.  The latter shows the most important changes in the vegetation cover in the study area.

Spatial variation of population growth in Nineveh Governorate for the period 2001_2021 AD

Maha Abdullah Hussien Alrashedy; Muneeb Mashaan Ahmed Aldouri

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 907-930
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177182

The research aims to highlight the image of spatial disparity in the growth of the population of Nineveh Governorate, its trends and rates, the distribution of the population according to districts, their relative density, patterns, and the percentage of their concentration ,Development  in various areas of economic, urban and even health life, so population growth has become one of the phenomena emphasized by population geographers. 2001_ 2011 amounting to (2.7%) and decreased in the period 2011-2021 to (2.1%), and the research revealed a clear discrepancy in growth rates between districts, as the Mosul district contained the largest population gathering in the governorate for the duration of the study at a rate of (47.5) %), (52.1%) and (52.4%) of the total population of the governorate, with a population density of (265.9) people / km2, and (369.8) people / km2, and (466.4) people / km2, with a concentration rate of (17.8%), (20.1%) and (6.7%) for the years 2021, 2011, 2001 respectively, and this means that almost half of the  population of the governorate is concentrated in this district, due to the availability of services, whether health, educational or recreational services, in addition to the presence of most government departments, which made the district enjoy an element of population 

functional change and land use change in cities, Causes and effects

Khaled Ahmed Idan; Sura Taha Younes

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 931-948
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177183

   functional change is one of the contemporary phenomena that many cities are witnessing, especially cities in developing countries that lack proper planning methods in organizing cities and urban centers. Urban and the absence of legal oversight and abuse of basic designs, all of which prompted property owners and investors to randomly modify and switch patterns of urban use, resulting in a distortion in the urban fabric of many residential areas and neighborhoods in cities, and this contributed to the occurrence of visual pollution in the street facades on which the buildings were extended This phenomenon also left multiple effects and problems, including service, economic, social and other problems that affected the lives of the population

Hydrological analysis of the characteristics of the natural environment of the Erbil water basin

Eman Mohammed Hassan; Suhaib Hassan Khader

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 949-973
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177184

The current study dealt with research and analysis the characteristics of the natural environment of the Erbil Water Basin with an area of ​​(1684.73 km2), which is one of the water basins within the Erbil Governorate / northern Iraq and its discharge ends in the Great Zab River, and is represented by three secondary basins (Northern Erbil Basin - Middle Erbil Basin - Erbil Basin The study and analysis of the characteristics of the natural environment such as the geological structure, slope and vegetation, as well as climatic data, soil types and natural cover are controlling elements in determining the hydrological behavior of water basins.
The study showed the distinction of the study area with a basin body as a result of the presence of a group of convex structural structures of varying heights and confined to concave lands, and topographically divided into three units (highlands - hills - plain lands), and that (76.16) % of the area of ​​the study area according to (Zuidam) classification is On flat and low-slope surfaces with gradients of (0-7%), and that the majority of the directions of the slopes are compatible with the topography of the region that the waterways of the basin follow in their flow, and as a result of the coincidence of the low temperatures and evaporation rates with the season of rain precipitation increases the actual value of rain and the occurrence of surface runoff, It was also noted that the percentage of vegetation cover reached (88.98) %, which is a high percentage in the density of the vegetative evidence, and in terms of soil it is brown soils (94.76 %) and lithosol (5.24 %).

The commercial structure For Wadi Hajar Street ( Study in Geography Urban )

Faris Ahmed Mansour; Mohammed Tariq Hamid

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 974-1002
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177185

The research aims to study the commercial structure of Wadi Hajar Street within the right coast of the city of Mosul, in addition to studying the local features in order to highlight the origin and emergence of it, identify and analyze the types of commercial functional units and indicate its geographical characteristics ,  The increase in the population size in any region is not accompanied by a change in the number of the city's population only, but is accompanied by a change in the composition, including the commercial installation, and from here the need to establish secondary commercial service centers, which became more popular after the year 2017 as a result of the damages suffered by the local market In the city of Mosul, which was considered the main market for the rest of the markets and commercial tapes , Through the study, we concluded that the number of shops in Wadi Hajar Street amounted to 197 commercial stores. The foodstuff trade is dominated by the tape with the number of stores reaching (76), with a percentage of 38.57% of the total stores, followed by the importance of craft shops with (52) Shop with  a rate of 26.36% .

Spatial development of historical-archaeological foundations in Nineveh Governorate "Nimrud Sub-district a case study"

Bader Abdulraheem M. Al–Lahibi; Ali Khalil Khalaf Al-Jabiri

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1003-1021
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177186

        The study and development of the historical-archaeological foundations have a significant impact on showing the depth of the history and civilization of Nimrud sub-district, in addition to its effective contribution to raising the level of per capita income and attracting national and foreign investment for these cultural foundations.
The study of the historical-archaeological foundations and their development in the Nimrud district aims to reveal the cultural potential represented by the historical and archaeological sites enjoyed by the Nimrud sub-district in particular, and the methods of their development and sustainability.
Therefore, the research focused on the question about the historical-archaeological foundations that represent one of the pillars of development in the region and how to plan and invest it as an economic and tourist resource for the region, and then reveal the most important obstacles and problems facing its development process in the study area, which represents the research problem.
The research is based on the hypothesis that the historical-archaeological foundations that the study area enjoys, along with other foundations, are basic inputs and pillars in the spatial development process, and then the outputs appear as work functions and socio-economic returns for the population of the studied area.
The focus was on the geographical distribution of historical and archaeological sites within the Nimrud sub-district in the Nineveh Governorate, which has an area of ​​(474 ​​km2), to study it in a comprehensive and in-depth study and shed light on it, given that what this area has been subjected to in terms of vandalism and destruction is a crime against human heritage.

Solar luminosity at Rabia district Analytical Climatological Study

Khader Jassim Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1022-1044
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177187

The a study of the number of hours of real and theoretical sunshine duration is one of  modern climate studies in the world, as it is supported and confirmed by geographers considering the practical applied approach has its justification in the contemporary climate, and relied on the application of mathematical and statistical equations so it is climatic within the field Applied climate.
The sunshine is critical in the proper planning and optimal use of solar energy resources in various fields in order to develop appropriate plans for different activities based on their results.
 The reasons for the study in the enrichment of climate studies such as these quantitative studies that are associated with many other studies, whether in the natural or human field. The choice of the subject of research (Sunshine duration in the Rabia station/ an analytical climatic study) gave a spatial dimension to the diastolic surface this reflects on the impact of climate elements, and this reflects negatively or positively on the number of sunshine hours, as well as the rare studies that dealt with sunshine duration in geographical studies, especially in Iraq.
 The elements of solar radiation, outside the Earth's atmosphere absorbed solar  radiation (Ra) and total solar radiation (Rs) share the highest values in June and lowest in December, and real and theoretical sunshine duration at the highest values in June and lowest in January. Mathematical relationships have been found to calculate total solar radiation (Rs) from sunshine (real, theoretical, sunshine ratio). The relationship of multiple association of total solar radiation (Rs) with solar sunshine (real, theoretical, sunshine ratio) was positive as it reached (0.998).
The adoption of the values of solar radiation outside the atmosphere (Ra) when calculating solar radiation for any time, because it relied on constants such as the latitude and length of the day (theoretical). The rest of the elements of solar radiation values change as climate elements and other variables. And the adoption of theoretical sunshine values (N) because they are fixed for all years because they depend on constants.

Random housing and some of its urban characteristics on the left side of the city of Mosul

Khalid Ahmed Idan Al Hadidi; Sarah Khalil Mahmoud Al Arafa

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1045-1074
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177188

Random housing is one of the problems that most countries of the world suffer from, through encroachment on state lands and agricultural and abandoned lands within the city and its outskirts.  The poor security conditions witnessed by the country prompted the population to move to other areas, which led to an increase in slums, and the left side of the city of Mosul is one of the cities where random housing appeared and spread in all its municipal sectors.  In terms of the number of slums and the distribution of slums in them and clarifying their locations through the field study for the year 2022, and the study of urban characteristics that reflect the nature of the urban reality of housing in slums

The Climatic Concepts of the Brothers of Safa/A study in geographical thought

Hiba Salim Yahya Al-Sultan; Raghda Mahmud Abo Marie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1075-1099
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177189

 Muslim geographers studied the surface of the Earth since its inception and demonstrated the extent of the influence of the sun and moon rays on the surface of the planets.  And their impressions of the gas envelope were in agreement with the theories of the Greeks. The study dealt with one of the bright minds in the history of Arab and Islamic thought, and to highlight the thinkers whose works emerged in the fourth century AH and they are the Brethren of Purity through their famous works known as the Epistles of the Brethren of Purity. The subject has been discussed.  In terms of their birth, upbringing and intellectual activity, especially with regard to the climatic field, which is one of the branches of physical geography, including concepts and ideas related to the division of the atmosphere, an analysis of the most important elements of climate and visual weather phenomena, and a detailed explanation of applied climate as one of the branches of climatology.  It came in the letters of the Brothers of Safa 

The intellectual outcomes of Safa in physical and human geography

Hiba Salim Yahya Al-Sultan; Raghda Mahmud Abo Marei

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1100-1125
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177190

 Muslim Arabs excelled in various sciences since the beginning of the Islamic era, and geography had a special interest on their part, as great efforts were made to study and develop Arab geographical thought.  The natural and human nature of the Brethren of Purity as one of the most prominent thinkers whose works emerged in the fourth century AH (tenth century AD) through their famous works known as the Epistles of the Brethren of Purity.  Their intellectual outputs came integrated with regard to the main branches of geography, and thus they laid the foundations for the science of geography that geographers relied on later. Therefore, the importance of the research lies in analyzing the geographical information contained in their letters In this research, we will follow the historical-analytical method to trace the received geographical information, as well as the descriptive method to describe the geographical phenomena brought by the Brethren of Purity in the chapters of their letters on geography and naturals.                                                             

Geographical analysis of the natural components of industry in Nineveh Governorate

Ahmed Talal Khader Al-Tai; Nashwan Mahmoud Jassim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1126-1153
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177191

Industry plays a key role in development, as it helps comprehensive development in multiple aspects, as it works to achieve economic intertwining between activities. The industrial development that swept the world is one of the most important reasons for the availability of industrial components represented in the natural, human and economic components, as some regions are rich in resources that work on the development of industry in the third world, in which there are resources that we need to exploit in industry to increase the value of GDP to raise the standard of living and work on well-being of societies in developing countries.
The research aims to study the relationship between the components of industry in Nineveh Governorate, the geographical concentration of industry in the governorate and its repercussions on the events of industrial development and the revival of the industry's contribution to the national income
The study adopted the descriptive method and the inductive method. The study concluded that Nineveh Governorate possesses natural and human components that qualify it for industrial development, as it possesses different types of rocks and is rich in different types of minerals. of resources. The study recommended the necessity of coordination between industry requirements of agricultural, mineral, animal and forest raw materials in a way that contributes to reducing the cost of production, as well as establishing new industries in areas where there are no industries and the elements of industry are available.

The development of geographical thought from its inception until the present time

Mousa Sarhan Mousa; Heba Salem Yahya

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1154-1179
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177192

Geography is one of the oldest sciences known to man on the surface of the earth. There were writings of a geographical nature about three thousand years ago, and geography from that time until the present time continues to develop without interruption in any period.From the periods of history, and that geographical thought in its current form is the product of human civilizations, ancient and modern, and that geographical thought passed through its history in different stages with each stage becoming more mature and enriched in thought.  And Persia, geography emerged as a science in the era of the Greeks and flourished in the Middle Ages within the framework of Islamic civilization, as it is no secret to anyone the role that Arabs and Muslims played in this field at a time when Europe was living in the era of darkness, and in our time, geography, like other sciences, has benefited from developments  What is happening in the world, as scientific and technical progress, especially in the field of geographic information systems, remote sensing and other technologies, has been reflected in the science of geography, thanks to which the study of geography and its research methods has advanced and its information has multiplied.

Changing Urban Land Uses In The City Of Mosul / Al Bareed Street As A Model.

Khaled Ahmed Idan; Sura Taha Younes

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1180-1200
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177193

   The change in urban land uses is one of the dynamic phenomena that accompany the growth of cities and urban centers, and this change may be in a planned and deliberate manner, and it may be a random change resulting from poor administrative and governmental planning to regulate urban land uses, and the absence of legal oversight, and abuse of basic designs. The land uses change in an unplanned manner, resulting in many problems and effects that cast a shadow on the residents and their lifestyles, as well as affect the general morphological appearance of the city, resulting in a distortion in the urban fabric and the occurrence of visual pollution, as well as many other problems such as traffic congestion and noise and others.

Evaluation of the efficiency of the performance of the service of civil defense centers in the city of Mosul using geographic information systems

Ali Ibrahim Ali Sulaiman; Laith Hassan omar

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1201-1234
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177194

The research focused on evaluating the efficiency of the distribution of the current civil defense centers in the city of Mosul by using the statistical analysis tools available in the GIS environment to know the average center and the center parameter of the centers and then the direction of their distribution and knowledge of the center of dispersal and spread to them, and then analyze the standards signed by the Ministry of Construction and Population for the year 1983, which is all of the criterion (population, area, and response time) and its application to the city. It turns out that about 90% of the city’s population is outside. As for the area of ​​the city that was out of service, it amounted to about 83%. As for the response time standard, it was set at (10) minutes. According to the local standard, it is very long when compared with the international standard by (4) minutes, and according to the statistics obtained from the Nineveh Defense Directorate for the year 2021, the number of accidents reached according to the international standard was 887, i.e. 64% of the total accidents in The study area and this is an average indicator according to this criterion. Through this assessment, the extent to which the city needs to establish new civil defense centers was identified, commensurate with the population, spatial and urban size of the city.

Development of the renewable energy industry in Mosul using Geographical Information System And Remote Sensing

Walid Waad Abdul; Sahar Saeed Qasim Al-Taie

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1235-1260
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177195

The renewable energy is regarded as  one of the basic necessities in which many countries have relied to move the wheel of development forward, The rate of energy consumption was considered as an indicator of nations and peoples progress as electric energy represents the infrastructure of various contemporary activities that many countries adopt in their economic growth. The programs of  energy development is not taken into account unless there are  developing  plans not  concerned with change, progress and not to deplete  fossil fuel resources, which has been depleting in recent times because of the increase in demand for electricity and for  the high in oil prices, research concerned the possibility of finding a new resource of electric energy, The solar and wind energy in an important step to solve the problem of electric power crisis in Mosul  city and the beginning of energy self-sufficiency.
The research aims to identify the concept of developing the renewable energy industry and its types, in addition to know the impact of the natural geographical features in Mosul city  to clarify its role in developing the renewable energy industry to know the appropriate sites to establish sites for solar cells and wind farms and their establishment in the study area, for the problem of power outages was regarded as  one of the basic problems facing the Iraqi state, including Mosul city , this asked  us to study this problem through renewable energy to reach  methods to solve it.
The study showed that there are three levels of spatial suitability to choose solar cell sites which are inappropriate areas and  occupies 2.8 km2 by 4. 1% of the area of  Mosul city. It included the areas that are in the shadows of the hills facing the solar radiation, whose slopes are towards the north, and suitable areas of medium degree which occupies 115.9 km2,  2.58% which includes most of the city’s area that's  increased in the east and west of the city for relatively high which occupies 80.3km2 by3.40%. It includes most of the city’s area and increases in the east and west of the city, being high areas and their slope towards the south that receive large amounts of solar radiation.

Characteristics and Scholars of Arab-Islamic Geographical Thought in the Third Hijri Ninth Century AD

Mousa S arhan Mousa; Heba Salem Yahya

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1261-1285
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177196

Arab-Islamic geography entered a new phase characterized by originality and prosperity after it moved away from being influenced by Greek geographical ideas since the third century AH / ninth century AD.  Its specialties, especially with regard to the lands of Islam, as Arab and Muslim geographers during the third century AH provided clear services in their files that had the greatest credit for the development of geography, as they relied in their studies on personal observation, question and investigation, as most of them were scientific travelers who traveled the country  To collect scientific material for the purpose of writing and writing and to record the results of their experiments, experiences and observations in their intellectual or philosophy books.

Modeling the flow and sediment behavior of the Mamran basin channels

Faiq Hassan; Manhal Abdullah Hammadi; Khattab Saad Muhaimid

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4.1, Pages 1286-1307
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2023.177197

This study focused on the analysis of the hydrological factors and processes that led to the formation of the canals, and the identification of its hydrological characteristics represented by drainage and sedimentary production on the other hand. The problem of the study emerged in the difficulty of identifying the volume of water discharges and the volume of sediments, and what is the effect of the course of geomorphological processes that exercise their activities in the basin and the environmental effects resulting from them, which can be used in the reconstruction of the ecosystem of the basin. Modern cartographic methods are concerned with how to take advantage of the methods of automatic modeling of the contents of the maps in order to extrapolate and analyze the variables that occur on the landmarks of geographical regions by identifying the spatial factors that resulted in the occurrence of change and a spatial analysis of the composition of the cartographic elements accompanying this change.