Print ISSN: 1992-7452

Online ISSN: 2664-2808

Current Issue
Volume 17, Issue 2

Volume 17, Issue 2, Summer 2021, Page 1-1920


College of Basic Education Researches Journal Scientific Authentic Periodical Issued by College of Basic Education

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages -
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168585

The editorial board of the Journal of Research of the College of Basic Education in its new look has the honor to issue the second issue, volume 17 for the year 2021, and the good echo left by the previous issues of the journal has had an impact and incentive to be more eager to issue this issue of ours. Continuing the scientific and research approach and continuous giving. We preferred to adopt the same approach in the diversity of topics and to attract researchers from our various universities and educational institutions locally, nationally and Arably. The number was full of research that was subject to rigorous scientific evaluation and arbitration. We believe that it will contribute effectively to the deepening of scientific thought and the consolidation of research methods, God willing.
We cannot fail to say that this effort would not have reached you had it not been for the keenness of the members of the editorial board and their tireless work to achieve it and put it in the hands of scholars and researchers.
We ask God Almighty that this work of ours is purely for His noble purpose and that it facilitates us to continue in our scientific giving, and God grants success.

The effect of using the flipped classroom strategy on the achievement of fifth grade literary students in geography and developing their geographical sense

Rana Al-Taei

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1-34
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168478

The current research aims to identify the effect of using the inverted class strategy on the achievement of fifth-grade literary students in the subject of Geography and developing their geographical sense. Two groups have been chosen from the fifth literary class in Al-Zuhour Secondary School for Boys affiliated to the General Directorate of Education in Nineveh. The first group (experimental) that taught according to (the strategy of the flipped classroom), of (21) students. And a second group (control) who taught by the traditional method. The number of students reached (20). Thus, the current study sample will be (41) students. The equivalence between the two groups was made in the variables (age, previous knowledge, intelligence quotient). To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher prepared an achievement test consists of (35) items. And prepared the Geographical Sense Scale, consists of (54) items. They were verified and validated. The data were processed statistically by using the Mann-Whitney equation program with the Spss pacage. The researcher used the discrimination equation, effectiveness of alternatives, difficulty and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the two groups  in the achievement test and the geographical sense scale in favor of the experimental group.

The effect of using the virtual laboratory on developing experimental thinking for students of the Department of Life Sciences In the laboratory of phylogeny

Mohammed Abdul Amir

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 35-55
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168481

The research aims to identify the effect of using the virtual laboratory on developing experimental thinking for students of the Department of Life Sciences in the Laboratory of Phylogeny by verifying the null hypothesis formulated by the researcher:
• There are no statistically significant differences at the level of significance (0.05) between the mean differences in the scores of the experimental group students who studied in the virtual laboratories and the average differences in the scores of the control group students who studied in the traditional way the real laboratory in the pre and posttests of experimental thinking.
The researcher conducted his research sample on the third stage students from an intentional sample of students of the Department of Life Sciences in the College of Education for Pure Sciences / University of Wasit Their number is (88) students, distributed in two divisions (A) and (B) and by random assignment, two groups were chosen, one of which is an experimental study in the virtual laboratory and its number is (44), and the other is a control who studied using the traditional method of the real laboratory and the number is (44) equivalent to the two groups of research conducted The researcher has the equivalence of the students of the research sample in some variables to increase concern for the internal integrity of the research results and among these variables (mental capacity, academic achievement, previous information in the plant laboratory, experimental thinking). The researcher also identified the scientific material for the testers and prepared the experimental thinking test consisting of (32) paragraphs. Multiple-choice The researcher also identified the scientific material for the testers and prepared the experimental thinking test consisting of (32) multiple choice items and by using statistical means after applying the experiment to the research, the researcher reached a set of conclusions, recommendations and proposals, including the superiority of the students of the experimental group that studied using the virtual laboratory in experimental thinking in a laboratory. Stalk the plant.

Perception of metacognition and its relationship to the level of academic ambition of university students

Adeeb Nader; Saad Ali

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 56-83
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168482

        The current research aims to identify the level of metacognitive  awareness  and its relation with the level of students academic ambition  at the university level through answering the following questions, The research is limited to scientific and humanity college level students in the  University of Mosul for the academic year (2012-2013),The sample includes ( 744 ) students distributed ,To achieve the goal of the  research the researcher has constructed the following measurements, The validity of the scales has been fulfilled with regards to ( face validity, content validity, and construction validity )- The discriminability of items has been calculated been by using Alpha Kronbouk , and re- test of each Scale- The data have been statistically analyzed using (SPSS) and the results showed ,There is no statistically significant difference in the level of metacognitive awmareneas of the subjects concerning the sex and academic specialization .

The Efect of using The Interrogation Style On The Achievement Of Fifth Primary Grad Students In Islamic Eduction

Omar Al-Ma dheedi

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 84-104
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168483

 
This study was condected to idenifty effect of using the interrogation method on the achievement of fifth-grade primary students in Islamic eduction,the sample was based on the first grade of primary grade from the "great news for boys" school for the academic year 2019-2020,where the tow research groups consisted of (62)students in the experimental group divison (A) and (31) students in division (B) the control group the researcher used the pharmacy design that has been the process or rewarding the transportation of the phash of the school the testing of the test has been extracted and stable and appropriate in the testing of the test of the collection of measurement and the use of the testing show the results of the results of the status of the experimental group,the group of export group and the results of the expermantal group and the search for the research finds the researcher of agoption of the question of questioning in teching the education material of all
school stages he suggested: conducting a study aiming to find out the effect of the interrogation method on the critical thinking of sixth grad pupils.  

Identify the advisory needs of students of the College of Basic Education at the University of Duhok

Jihaan Adel

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 105-130
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168484

         The current research aimed to identify the advisory needs of students of the College of Basic Education at the University of Duhok and to identify the differences in the extension needs according to the gender variable. The number of (10) departments, where the basic sample amounted to (100) male and female students, of (10) students in each department, with (5) males and (5) females, the researcher prepared a questionnaire with guidance needs that contained (32) guidance needs in its final form Within five domains, her apparent validity and stability were extracted by the method of retesting, where the treatment reached (0.82), after applying the tool and conducting statistical treatment with the data by extracting the weighted mean and percentage weight, the sample of students appeared to have some needs in all areas and there were significant differences between males and females in the two fields. They are the field (psychological, sexual). In light of the results, the researcher recommended a set of recommendations and proposals.

Employing the reciprocal teaching strategy in teaching science and its impact on the achievement of second-grade intermediate students and development their health awareness

Abdullah Alraho

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 131-166
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168485

       Current search goal is to identify “Employing the reciprocal teaching strategy in teaching science and its impact on the achievement of second-grade intermediate students and development their health awareness”. The research was limited on intermediate second grade female students in the center of Nineveh governorate for the academic year 2019-2020. The researcher choose experimental design which depend on two equal groups, the sample of research has formed of (72) female student they were distributed on two groups the first experimental includes (37) female student have studied by using reciprocal teaching and the second control includes (35) female student have studied by the usual way, the researcher prepared a test achievement in science formed frome (30) paragraph, kind of multiple choice for the four chapters of the second intermediate grade science textbook. And to measure the health awareness development among female students, the researcher adopted a scale (Abdullatif,2016) formed from (32) paragraph three-way alternatives. And the researcher verified the validity and reliability of the two tests, and the two scales are ready for application on the two groups female students, the statistical results showed the superiority of the experimental group female students in achievement and in developing health awareness.

The Reality of the comprehensive quality standards for physics laboratories in preparatory and secondary schools in Mosul

Hussein Shekhabosh

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 167-190
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168495

The research aims to reveal the reality of the comprehensive quality standards for physics laboratories in preparatory and secondary schools in Mosul. The research sample consisted of (33) secondary and intermediate schools in Mosul city for the academic year 2019-2020. To achieve the objective of the research, the researchers prepared a questionnaire from five fields, and in its final form it consisted of (55) items. The reliability of the scale has been validated by appropriate methods. After distributing the research questionnaire, the results showed the following:
Non-compliance of laboratories in Mosul with the principles of total quality in the five journals, and lack of commitment to use the laboratory in education in general.
The researchers concluded that observing the overall quality in the laboratories of the city of Mosul is not considered in addition to the lack of work inside the laboratory, but in schools where there is a laboratory such as distinguished students ’schools, the work is limited to the teacher and the laboratory assistant without involving students in the work on experiments in the laboratory, but their role It is only receive and watch. The researchers recommended several recommendations, including the necessity to observe the overall quality in the laboratory and activate the laboratories inside the Nineveh Governorate in general and the city of Mosul in particular to increase the preparation of follow-up committees to review the development of laboratory work in the Nineveh Governorate to adopt the comprehensive quality standards in the processing and use of laboratories.

Management by expectation in the colleges of Baghdad University in the light of the Kaizen methodology from the viewpoint of its administrative leaders

Yousif shahatha

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 191-216
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168496

The research aimed to identify the administration with the exception in the colleges of the University of Baghdad in the light of the casein methodology.
The descriptive analytical method has been used, and the research community has been empowered by administrative leaders in the colleges of Baghdad University. The study sample reached (50)
To achieve the results of the research, a tool (questionnaire) consisting of three areas (administrative empowerment - time management - participation in decision making) was prepared with (6) paragraphs for each field. The tool was judged by a number of specialists to ensure its honesty and reliability.
Statistical processing:
After field application of the research tool, the information provided was blanked, and statistically analyzed with the adoption of manual dumping of open responses. SPSS was used using the iterations, averages and standard deviations program to analyze results.
The most important results of the research:
the first goal:
The weakness of the reality of decentralized management of the deans of the Faculties of Baghdad University. As the average of the sample scores reached (32,198) degrees with a standard deviation of (6,432) degrees, which is smaller than the theoretical average of the questionnaire of (54) degrees.
The second goal:
Depending on the functional location variable
The results of the research indicated that there are no differences related to statistical evidence, which makes the views convergent between the responses of the administrative leaders.
Keywords: (Exception by Management - Casein Methodology)

The Effect of the Integration of the Strategies of the Flipped Classroom and the Hot Chair in the Achievement of Biology Among the Fourth Grade Students and the Development of their Critical Thinking.

Zeyad Hamad

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 217-243
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168497

The aim of the research is to identify the effect of the integration of the strategies of the mold and the hot chair in the achievement of biology among the fourth grade students and the development of their critical thinking. The researchers used the partial experimental design and the pre and posttest. The researchers chose (b) to represent the experimental group, which is taught according to the integration of the inverted and hot chair, and was chosen (a) as a control group, which is taught in the traditional way. The number of students is 84 students, 40 students in the experimental group and 44 students in the control group. The two groups were rewarded in the variables: age of students, intelligence, measure of thinking and learning achievement of the parents. The researchers prepared the research tool and the test of critical thinking. And straight Instruments used test (T-test) for data processing, the results showed the superiority of the experimental group that studied according to the inverted row hot and chair integration in the collection of living material in the fifth grade science students and the development of critical thinking.Keywords: Integrating Flipped Classroom & Hot Seat, Critical Thinking

The effect of Peer Teaching Strategy on the acquisition of some by mathematical concepts Special Education pupils

Haifa Albania

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 244-279
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168498

The current research amides know the effect of peer teaching strategy on the acquisition of mathematical concepts. To achieve the aim of this research ,the researcher put two null hypotheses .The first ,There is no statistically significant difference at the level of    (0.5)between the average of the grades of experimental group that used peer tutoring and that of the control group that used traditional method in the acquisition of some mathematical concepts in the post- test phase according to sex variable. The sample included all special education pupils at Nineveh center for the year 2011/2012. The researcher used the experimental design with two equal groups. The sample consisted of (12) male and female pupils divided in two groups ;the experimental with(6)pupils , (3) males and (3) females who used peer to touring and the other control group of (6) pupils with(3) males and (3)females that used traditional method .Equivalence process in clouded 'time age measured in month and the academic achievement of the parents'. The researcher made a test to acquire mathematical concepts. After doing surface validity ,the test in its final image was adopted. Stability was done using re-test reaching (0.82).The researcher applied the test to measure the acquisition of math metical concepts .After applying the tools, the data were treated statistically .The results showed;
1-There is a statistically significant difference at the level of (0.5)between the means of the experimental group that used peer tutoring and the one of the control group that used traditional method on the acquisition of some mathematical concepts in post test
2-  There is no statistically significant difference at the level of (0.5), between the means of the experimental group that used peer to tutoring the average of the control group that used the traditional method in acquiring some mathematical concepts in post test according to sex variable.
Given the results mentioned above, the researcher recommends the use of using peer tarring strategy in the acquisition of mathematical concepts due to its positive effect in developing class interaction between the pupils of special education
The researcher suggests using a similar study to know the effect of using peer tutoring stretchy on learning some materials or initiate a study about the effect of using peer tutoring to ring strategy on some variables like social interaction and the stage.
 

The Trilogy of values Doer and Its Impact in Reinforcement of the Environmental Security

Dr/ Mostafa El Hakim

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 280-296
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.129696.1221

According to what environment witnesses of systematic corruption, intended destruction, and underestimation of life's fundamentals and human existence elements, there is a critical necessity to reconsidering value system that represents the building bas, corner stone, and a safety valve in the history of rising nations in addition to the other legal, social, economical approaches aiming keeping the environment and estimating its resources, and protecting its elements. If these elements utilized in an integrated context and team effort, they will be a protecting factor and a bridge for environmental security, human progress, and health safety.
This research divided – according to this introduction – into two sections: the first of them investigated the value concept, its language origin, and its generated meanings that enable of understanding the dimensions of this concept, aims, and functions. The second section displayed the organizing values of the environmental human behavior. The conclusion included the research results, recommendations, and suggestions.

The effect of using knowledge society strategies in developing geographical criticism and successful intelligence for students in the geography department in the College of Basic Education.

Dalia abdulkareem; Rawa Mohamed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 297-324
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168500

The aim of this research is to identify the effect of using knowledge society strategies in developing geographical criticism and successful intelligence for students in the second year, in the geography department in the College of Basic Education in 2019-2020. In this research, we have included 44 students, male and female who distributed randomly. The first experimental group of 23 students were taught using knowledge society strategies and the control group of 21 students were taught in the usual way. To achieve the goal of this research, we have prepared two tools, the first of which was a test for geographical criticism consisting of 23 items. The test stability was 0.80 using Coder Richardson's equation 20, which is a high constant coefficient.
While for the measure of successful intelligence, it consists of 28 items and its stability was extracted using the Pearson correlation equation and it was 0.75, which is a good stability factor. Using statistical methods, the results showed the superiority of the experimental group that was studied using the strategies of the knowledge society over the control group in terms of geographical criticism and successful emotional intelligence. Considering this, we presented a set of recommendations and suggestions, including:
Emphasis on the use of the strategies of the knowledge society in teaching geography in the different academic stages, as it is a modern and effective study. We have suggested conducting a similar study and other studies.

The Grammatical Explanation of Sheikh Ismail Al-Hamidi (d. 1316 AH) in his footnote on the explanation of al-Kafrawi for the body of al-Ajrami

Zaunab Ali; Kareem Dawud

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 325-342
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168501

After the expansion of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, there was a great deal of mixing   of Arabs with non-Arabs who wanted to convert to Islam and learn its Arabic language, which led to the expansion of the Islamic environment and the spread of the phenomenon of melody. Distortion, and they were not only confined to the matter, but went beyond the matter to explain these provisions, and the rules in order to establish them in the minds of the learners, or to support an opinion they adopted, or to explain a phenomenon they saw.
For this reason, the grammarians resorted to adhering to most of the rulings with causes that explain their causes, as is the case for most grammarians who adopted the faults in their writings and paid clear attention to them. Al-Ajromiya) to highlight a part of the efforts of Sheikh Ismail Al-Hamdi (may God have mercy on him) in this field, who took from his entourage to Al-Kafrawi as a model, and he completed two papers after an introduction in which we dealt with the life of Sheikh Ismail Al-Hamidi, and made the first topic to explain the concept of grammatical reasoning, and what was written about that It was authored, and the second topic deals with the efforts of Sheikh Ismail Al-Hamdi in this field.
 

The Personality mark in the Very Short Story The Complete Works of Haytham Behnam Barada as a model

Khalid Al- Jubori; Nabhan Al-Saadon

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 343-372
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168502

The selection of the creative Iraqi storyteller (Haitham Behnam Barada) came as a field to study the research for what his collections of very short stories bear, which were called (suspended love / the second night after a thousand / the isolation of Enkido / The Identification / Ships and Caves) which he collected in one volume entitled (Works The complete: the very short story) which was printed in Jordan by Dar Al-Now Publishers and Distributors / Amman / 2019 of coherent artistic techniques in which he worked to preserve the identity of the narrative text in an integrated manner, as well as relying on signal, lighting, a quick glance and a visionary stroke to express life experiences in society, Therefore, Al-Alamah formed a distinct phenomenon in his very short narrative works, working to uncover art and produce a new meaning within the communicative discourse between the narrator and the reader.
The research came through its study on an entrance and two researches. The first topic included a study of (types of reference personality) in terms of dividing them into social personality, historical personality and symbolic personality, while in the second section we devoted the study to (personal belongings), which in turn was divided in terms of name, character and profession as well as description and dialogue.
 

The causal interpretation of names and their semantic development in The Crown of the Bride from the essence of the dictionary

Sumaya Taher Abdullah; Hazem Ismail

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 373-408
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168503

The research deals with the causal interpretation of a number of names that were named as a result of the semantic development that they were subjected to, in the book Taj al-Arus from the dictionary jewels of Zubaidi (1205 AH). The semantic development is one of the aspects of linguistic development. Constant change that does not stop.
The aspects of development in these names are represented in three aspects, the first aspect: is the generalization of significance, the second: the assignment of significance, and the third aspect: it is the semantic transition, or the field of use, and it includes the movement of significance from the perceived domain to the abstract, or from the tangible to the sensible, and the semantic transition Through the metaphor of the like relationship, and the semantic transfer of the non-like relationship, which are the transmitter metaphor relationships.
 

imayinatins of cinema in thep poem ( Ala Qadr Ahlelazim) The poet Al- mutanabi

Jassim Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 409-438
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168504

 
The poeticl text -especilly old one- is full meaningand style so we can read it in manuy ways according to field of knowledye either artistic or aesthete or throngh acting. Poetical text cold be read photostatic through imaginationthen trying to look at it as potoyraps , according to this way,poetwtrer intersects with visual artworks especially cinema and concrs with them.                                                                         Interseetion of poet with cinema maele it borrow some of  their styles and tools which forms any poetical style full of continuance besides dissovering aestgeticstyles,influence and meaning , so we shall deal with the poetical text of al- mutanabby throng employing cinematic films to dissover new meaning in the poetical text hoping to change the recipient from areuder or listener to aviewer recipient

The Structure of Temoporary Poem Ahmed Bachet s "Roma" as a case study

Ghanim sultan

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 439-465
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168505

          Undoubtedly, the structure of a temporary poem as it reached development and maturity in the present time is regarded as one of demands of modernism to become as awareness and recognition of the poetic experience through the relation-ship between self and subject whether self is a poet or a critic. There for, the study aims at discovery of the temporary poem and its effect on connotation through technical basis on which it stands and its special form. We try to delve and discover its dimensions. We chose the menti0ned poem because its temporary vision and deep connotation and its structure. We divided the study into four sections:
1- The technique of Title
2- The technique of employing the heritage
3- The technique of employing paradox
4- The technique of employing rhyth

Ills of the rules of writing poetry In contemporary critical discourse

Huda Abdulla; . Salim Dhannon

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 466-486
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168506

This study is concerned with the license in the rules of writing poetry called the causes, and the acceptance and rejection that it encountered in the books of the rules of writing poetry. Arabi; This is due to the different positions of the inhabitant and the moving in the Arabic dictionary, and this is the secret of its linguistic wealth, as the language was not bound to certain words.
The illness interferes with the causes and pegs, and is distinguished by entering the ends of the chest and the deficit without filling, and thus its importance is in the ratio of the weight of the house, so it is said: the ends of the chest and the deficit specified in the science of the rules of writing poetry, which are thirty-four multiples , And sixty-three performances.
The illness is necessary, and if it enters, it must be entered at the ends of the chest and the deficit in the whole poem.
The illness was also distinguished as the cause of decrease or increase, unlike the crawler, which concerned the decrease without the addition, and accordingly the causes will be studied according to the principle of decrease and increase.

The semantic differences of the words love and friendliness and miss them in the holy Quran

DAAD HUSSEIN; Dhul-Azhan Abdul haleem

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 487-506
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168507

This research states the importance of love; that word with tender shadows and the one beloved by the human soul, and Islam reflects a special understanding for this word as it is a religion that acknowledges love as one of the most vital and effective human impulses and motives in the individual and collective behavior. It is also one of the paths to recognize Allah and approach him. There is no doubt that affection is a positive virtue because it is, in essence, a means to approve the bonds of love and intimacy and reviving them even if it represents an emotional and sentimental denotation, though it is originally a positive and practical tendency. Love is the polar of worship as loving the religion and its details is a sign of the faith perfection; loving Allah entails obeying his messenger peace be upon him and his tradition. There is a semantic difference between the two words: love and affection as love is what settled in the heart and affection is what was translated by the behavior and not every loving person is friendly and the human can love and this love does not show in his behavior and every friendly person has affection in his heart and its basis is the love feeling inside his heart, therefore the affection is the love which is not reflected. The current research relied on references that deal with the semantic differences as a partnership study conducted by Mosul University in Iraq and UniversitiSultan ZainlAbidin in Malaysia.

Opposites in Kitab ( al-Nihaya fi Gharib al-Hadith wa al-Athar) by Ibn al-Atheer al-Jazari

Abdul Ismaeel

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 507-538
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168508

This research aims to elucidate the phenomenon of opposites according to Ibn al-Atheer al-Jazari (d.606) We included these terms according to their arrival in the book (The End), and arranged them according to the alphabetical order of their root, and their number reached ( 22) items, and we reviewed the method of Ibn al-Atheer in dealing with them by description and analysis. In this study, we concluded that the concept of opposites according to Ibn al-Atheer al-Jazari was distinguished by its features and its limits were clear, and we extracted the features of his approach to drawing this linguistic phenomenon, and we found that it has several features, including: It is based on mentioning the linguistic meaning of a number of opposites, as well as resorting to contextual interpretation, and citing Strange hadith and the effect in proving this phenomenon, and sometimes more than one trace is mentioned to demonstrate its contradiction, and in some citizens resort to mentioning the conjugation of some words of opposites and the statement of their own and their combination, and the declaration of mentioning the two antagonists, and the judgment against the word.

The key poem of the poet Bushra Al-Bustani An approach to interpretation and abstraction

Ikhlas Abdullah; Khalil Hayas

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 536-556
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168509

 
Our research entitled "The Al-Miftah poem of the poet Bushra Al-Bustani  An approach to interpretation and abstraction"
 includes several axes :( abstraction , title , narration and characters , abstraction and the game of I and you , act and its result, the poetic meter ).
The poetess has employed narration, dialogue , characters, and acts according to the base of abstraction and its growing effectiveness in the text  from a vision that every open place can be a close place one day for those who do not an effective tool for this transition and transformation .So, every freedom may be accompanied with its absence and being lost . This transformation which occurs on place according to the operation of (open and close ) occurs also on man for man’s self is the owner of attribute and ability to change according to its internal vision and heated feeling .Al-Miftah ( the text title ) is that which possesses the secret of this operation .Here , it forms the invisible secret behind pulling characters out of uncertain  place or the place lacking freedom that does not  require self-absence or surrender to the problematic of hard life . It is the door through  which he can  go out to another place or a world of more clarity , freedom and reasonability . Thus , the key (Al-Miftah) has formed a special key to go into the depth of the text and recognizing its secrets .

Caves and caverns in Modern Novel Text -Between myth and reality and symbol-

Mohamed Jarjees

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 557-584
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168510

The subject is related to some of the problems of Arab human life at the individual level, and at the level of the general social and political reality. The cave and cavern are two places in nature But they acquired the meanings of life and history after the growing awareness and the emergence of the arts of literature, Some of these arts were able to employ them in novels, narrative and poetic texts as a safe haven, Or symbolic to express the human sense of injustice and domination and alienation, And his attempts to out from the darkness of nescience and oppression to the light of life and freedom. In the human heritage and our Arab literature - old and modern - many texts were able to portray events that have already happened, Some texts quoted legends and tales about personalities who resorted to caves and caverns to escape a social or political crisis. The research attempts to follow the mechanisms of Verbal recruitment to analyze the evidence of myths, symbols and some facts through reading some of the Arabic narrative texts.

The rhetorical term in the book Hassan Al-Tawassul to the industry Shihab al-Din Mahmoud al-Halabi (died 725 AH) Metonymy term as a model

Esraa al-Karakji; Mazen Mowaffak

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 585-607
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168511

The research deals with the concept of the term metonymy for Shihab al-Din al-Halabi, starting from a historical and descriptive study of the term, taking into account the stages of the development of this concept and its transmission, eventually reaching two concepts that came as a result of this development, which stem from the term general metonymy and then goes to the axis of metonymy between truth and metaphor.

Intertextual Image in Aref Al-Saadi's Poetry Intertextual Image in Aref Al-Saadi's Poetry

Omar Al-Rashidi; Jasim Jasim

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 608-629
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168512

Intertextuality is a poetic mechanism used by poetry as an art that depends to a large extent on memory, and the studies of intertextuality in the modern era have gained great critical attention due to the danger of this mechanism in forming the poetic text and proposing the vision of this text. On the specificity of the poet’s use of this mechanism in a way that makes it a central working mechanism on which the poet relies in building the text and proposing its contents. In this research, we will deal with the issue of intertextuality, its manifestations, and the mechanisms of its functioning among the poet, which are mechanisms that distribute between the benefit from the religious and poetic heritage in general, as well as other intertwining pillars that will be clarified through the context of this research.

Opposite dualities in Al-Mutanabbi's poem (I'm overwhelmed with longing in you)

ahmed Jaffal; Mona Diab

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 630-656
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168513

 This study aims to read the poetic text in a different way, through which it monitors antagonistic diodes and their functioning within the literary text, and shows its aesthetic in the structure of the text in the light of a poem - the Arab poet Al-Mutanabbi - (Aghlab Feek Al-Shawq), which represents a unique model in the employment of these dichotomies and their dialectic, and its ability to  Stimulating the poetic structure and depicting the poet's psychological state and its convulsions, which embody scenes of praise and poetical self-movements between two praises, so the study came to show the conflict of opposites and to explain their aesthetic, creative and rhetorical effect in this poem through which the poet exploded the beauty reservoirs and illuminated its poetic structure with its dialectical meanings and semantic philosophy.
 
 

Means of communication and their role in spreading the concept of the necessity to defend the Messenger (may God bless him and grant him peace)

Zainalabdin Askar

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 657-679
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168514

The modern scientific and technological revolution has contributed to the invention of means of communication that have changed the shape of the world, and given the advantages that these means have through the functians and goals, they perform in the speed of spread, it was necessary to exploit these means in order to serve Islam, and with this development we find the need Massa to means of communication that work to define the personality of the Messenger (may God bless him and grant him peace) and spread the concept of the necessity to defend him, and it is better for us to go to an extensive media study to spread this concept through an explanation of his personality (may God blesses him and grant him peace).

Selling the dowry of the wife: its jurisprudential adaptation - its legal ruling

Yasser Al-Uzayr

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 680-705
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168515

Summary: This research shows the practical aspect of the Islamic Shariah as a system and an integrated approach that gives each individual his or her field of merit in the presence of others. Among the aspects of this concern is the consideration of women's financial rights, the statement of Amadi and the declaration of guardianship that she is allowed to exercise. This right has been largely ignored, especially in our societies which are assigned to the side. This has led to the dereliction of a right or a generation with a patronizing rule Partly, it shows the face of his jurist and his evil judgment.

Islamophobia Nodal confrontation

Othman Al-Nadaw

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 706-727
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168516

This research deals with a cultural and intellectual phenomenon deeply rooted in history, even if it has a modern term, and it is a phenomenon (Islamophobia) intended to intimidate Islam and claim appeals that distract ordinary people and uninformed masses from embracing it, and this research proposes confronting this phenomenon from a doctrinal point of view through definition With the constants of the Islamic religion and the Islamic faith, and the extension of the rational approach on which Islam relies in stating the facts of its belief and persuading people of it.

Military Organizations During the Era of Prophecy (Historical Study)

Khansaa Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 728-767
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168521

The research included three investigations, the first dealt with topic of the management of the military organization in terms of the meaning of the organization in language and terminology, and the importance of the organization in Islam. The second topic, which included the Department of Military Operations, spoke of the appointment of commanders and the traditions of combat and the role of women in peace and war. The third research dealt with the Department of Training and Armaments, weapons resources and weapons of the Islamic Army.
The research included three investigations, the first dealt with topic of the management of the military organization in terms of the meaning of the organization in language and terminology, and the importance of the organization in Islam. The second topic, which included the Department of Military Operations, spoke of the appointment of commanders and the traditions of combat and the role of women in peace and war. The third research dealt with the Department of Training and Armaments, weapons resources and weapons of the Islamic Army.

Algerian-French relations 1962-1978 AD A study of bilateral situations and relations

Amer Yousef Shamden

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 768-804
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168522

Abstract
The foreign policy of France witnessed a new era when the Fifth Republic was established under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle, which wanted to eliminate colonialism, so the Evian Accords were signed to achieve political independence and restore national sovereignty to Algeria, so that Algerian-French cooperation witnessed sharp turns that recorded the cancellation of important articles of the agreement. The mystical and superficial, which led to a collision of French interests and privileges in Algeria, which caused a deterioration in relations in addition to the attacks that targeted Algerian immigrants and their property and did not stop at this point, if a bomb exploded in front of the entrance to the Consulate General of Algeria in Paris, which led to material damage to the building, which The issue of Western Sahara in which France sided with Morocco and smashed all attempts by Algeria to build the unity of the Maghreb, and France’s attempt since 1975 CE to revive relations with Algeria, as French President D'Estaing visited Algeria, but it remained governed by tension relations. And Algerian fear of French interference in internal affairs.

The establishment of the National Fascist Party and its arrival to power in Italy

jojan jojan

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 805-826
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168523

.The establishment of the Italian National Fascist Party by Mussolini in 1919 AD is the first fascist party that arose in Europe that witnessed the emergence of fascist movements and parties in the period between the two world wars, and what helped this was the growth of Italian nationalism and the tragedies that the First World War resulted in Italy on Although it was one of the victorious countries in the war, since the reconciliation countries marginalized their share of compensation at the peace conference in 1919. Italy's joining the First World War was on the side of the Allies, hoping that its participation would bring it good, because of the sacrifices it made and the burden on its treasury, which was reflected in the political situation and led to its deterioration. Thus the political and economic deterioration reflected on the social situation and generated great discontent and attraction The masses to the fascist party, which is increasing day by day until it reached a force that would impose itself, and this is what Mussolini did by marching to Rome in 1922 and forcing the government to form the new government with his head .

leader in fatah Iraq: Al Muthanna bin Haritha Al Shaibanis

Omar Khattab; Yasser Abdul-Jawad

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 827-850
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168524

      In frame work of the search( The Lion of Iraqi conquest ) in the history of the Islamic Orient, specifically in the first period of Islam's clear to us that there were members of their own fingerprints from which they could make fundamental changes the history of  Muslims after reconciling God and his generosity to them, of these giants,
Muthanna bin Haritha Al Shaibanis a tiptop of the military leader. Converted to Islam and entrench Islam in his inside, like other companions of the prophet, and when some of his people Left there ligion of Islam he was stopping in their faces, prevent them and warned them, not but, he was fought who has left Islam and when  was the Islamic conquests he was the first man whois fighting the Persians for his expertise and his people their war. When Abu Bakr was appointed Khalid bin al Waleed on the war did not Opposed, he was foughtunder kalid ’sbanner because his main concernis after life and it’s the reward also the victoryof Islam, Khalid knew him stature therefore gave him thes tature of respectin spite of the presence of senior leaders in the military likes Al Qaqaa and Adi, and other.
 

The emergence of the modern Iraqi state in foreign sources(philip Willard Ireland) as a model

Nadia Massoud sharef Aljirah

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 851-870
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168525


The researcher discussed in his book the importance of Iraq to Britain, as it is one of the important roads leading to India (the jewel of the British crown), so when the First World War broke out, Britain occupied Iraq, wanting to turn it into an Indian province, but in the wake of the revolution of twenty years in Iraq. 1920, Britain changed its policy towards Iraq by establishing an autonomy that would ensure the preservation of British interests. An interim government was formed headed by Abdul Rahman al-Naqib, assisted by a number of supervisors and some patriots and with the advice of British advisors. This government was the beginning of the foundations of national rule through the British rule concealed by the mask of the Iraqi Arab front, and Britain wanted to place a king over Iraq to rule the new permanent Iraqi government, and despite the multiplicity of candidates from Iraqis and others, Britain was supportive of one of Sharif Hussein’s sons Especially King Faisal.
King Faisal I assumed the throne of Iraq in 1921, and the new aspect of Iraqi-British relations begins, in addition to his policy towards the opposition in the country until his efforts were successful after Iraq entered the League of Nations in 1932, and during this period Iraq

The dictatorial politics of Soviet President Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)

jojan jojan

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 871-893
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168526

One of the most important features of the twentieth century in the history of Europe is the emergence of military dictatorships and what these dictatorships played in the world of politics and occupied an important place in modern and contemporary European history, and the most prominent of these dictatorial regimes is the regime of the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, who embodied dictatorship in the Union of Soviet Republics Sprawling, and practiced absolute policy on all levels of political, economic and social. He was determining the internal and external policy, and developing plans and programs for that policy. It was known as the Five-Year Plan, after the dictator crushed all his rivals and opponents, and the people approached him as soon as they were suspicious of them. By ruling life as the sole heir to Lenin's empire.
Stalin implemented five-year plans for the advancement of the Soviet economy, according to the communist principle. However, those plans were far from communism, which called for people's ownership of economic facilities, as it was overwhelmed by dictatorship and the people were nothing but a tool in the hands of the state, like slaves. On the other fronts, it also killed the Soviet people, as it interfered in various areas of life, specifically religion and belief, as Christians, Muslims and Jews suffered most suffering and persecution, and that stemmed from the communist ideology that infects hostility to religion and is based on atheism.

العدوان الثلاثی على مصر واثره على العلاقات الاردنیة-السعودیة

Abdulrhman waleed salih Alqassar

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 894-910
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168527

The triple aggression against Egypt came for many reasons, including the revolution of Egypt in 1952, as well as the policy of Egypt and Abdel Nasser towards the Non-Aligned Movement and its participation in the Bandung conference in 1955, the high dam project is one of the most important reasons that led the major countries Britain and France (Israel) to carry out aggression.
Britain was a strong supporter of the high dam project, but that support later faded and was replaced by Soviet support, which provoked the three major powers and prompted them to embark on aggression against Egypt.
Britain began its attack on Egypt and then France and later (Israel), the Arab countries did not stand in the face of aggression, as Jordan and Saudi Arabia began to open centers to volunteer in order to send military forces to repel the aggression from Egypt, as well as allow Saudi Arabia forces to pass through Jordanian territory, which strengthened relations between the two countries.
Jordan and Saudi Arabia have united their positions during and after the aggression, as the two countries severed diplomatic relations with enemy countries as well as raised donations from the people to support Egypt.

John Foster Dulles and the Suez Crisis 1956

Adeeb alluohaby

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 911-937
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168528

 
   July 1956 ,Wincsscd the cmerhencc of a Political crisis Known as the Suez Crisis which quickly turned into a military confrontation in late October 1956 between Egypt and Israel from one side while on the other side between Britain and France.
   The American administration  viaits State secretary (John Foster Dulles ) played an important role in the crisis in proportion to its interests, The research entitled (John Foster Dulles and the Suez Crisis1956 ) deals with the important role of Dulles in shaping the US foreign policy towards the Arab region.The Suez crisis represented a real test for Dulles s ability of balancing between the American benefits in the area and the plans of the allies of America (Britain,France and Israel)which did not have the same visions of America in dealing with the crisis.  

The Militarism Roles of Al Abi Waqas AL-Zuhri during the period of Aslamic

Doaa Ahmed Abboush; Nidal Mal Allah

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 938-979
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168529

 
A This paper talks about the family of Abi Waqas who were a unique leaders as well as princes during the militarim participations which had distinguishing effect . Added to these , they played an important role to expansion the Islam and fixed their props in those battles . They were fighters as well as leaders . We will talk about these roles in this paper .
 

Civil War Al maghuleyah 664_701 H/ 1266_1302 M Analytical Study

raghag abdulkareem aljnajaar

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 980-1002
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168530

his study sheds light on the most terrible Magholian civil wars, which were the theater of Turkestan, Transoxania, and China, which lasted for nearly three and a half decades, and the reasons for which are due to the desire of the parties to lead and dominate the areas of influence of the Maghol Empire, Arik Buka, who had declared himself a traitor to the Mongols, was preoccupied with this war between Kublai and Kaidu khan in Western Turkestan, and Kaido was one of the fiercest opponents of Kublai declaration of himself as emperor of the Maghols in the year 658 AH / 1260 AD, and this opposition led the two parties to declare war between them and intensified after Kublai realized that Kaidu ambition did not stop. At the borders of preserving its properties in the countries of Western Turkestan, but was extended to impose its hegemony over the countries of Transoxiana and Khorasan, and its goals from that were to control the trade of the Silk Road that was passing through these countries, This is what actually happened when Kaidu was able to impose his will on these countries,

الرسول محمد صلى الله علیه وسلم فی روائعه القیادیة من خلال مسیرته الدعویة

maha matar

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1042-1070
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168531

From this research, it is manifested to us the importance of the prophet's leadership in the construction of civilizations through the Islamic call track which led the peoples in an accurate way within a very elaborate temporal sequence  .                                                                                                          
In this respect, the researcher attempted to clarify the method used by prophet Mohammed peace be upon him in terms of his call to people to be Muslim. All this was done through his sound attitudes and reaction against the challenges, obstacles and troubles he faces until all were settled by Almighty Allah. 

A Spatiol Analysis for the agricultural Development in the DiyalaGovernorate (A Study of Features and Impediment)

Muharib Al Mawoore

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1071-1096
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168532

          The Agricultural development is one of the most important indicators of economic which countries went to achieve such as Iraq, because it provides Foot for population that grow more  as it also provides the need of industry , it also provides the needs of animals for tune. The study Field in Dyala Governorate, which that has agriculture Features represented in climate, on Soil Fertility, Plain, water resources as well as the importance of than sport and government policies button, and many Farmers, these Factors made this area a good agricultural Field. On the contrary of this, there are geographical Features that Limit developing agricultural Fertile these Lilts over through solutions.
    Place analysis refers to big agricultural abilities, through growing strategically plants and growing big animal Fortune, these abilities give clear vision for developing agricultural in the area through using large areas to the political and economic strategy.
                           

Analysis of the reality of electric power service in the right side of the city of Mosul, a study of urban geography

Adnan Kadier; Manhal Al-Jubouri

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1097-1120
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168533

     After studying the reality of electric power service, which is the backbone of the development of cities and their civilized, technological and economic progress after their recent entry into the various fields of life. By reviewing the service reality of this sector in the study area, the results showed that there is a significant lack of infrastructure in electrical power services from major and secondary stations with voltage 11/33/132/400 K.V. as a result of the significant destruction of its infrastructure. Which was the reason why the study area was unable to benefit from the energy generated from the Mosul dam station, which made there a significant shortage of this service towards the population and covered the annual increase of energy required for the study area.
 

The growth of random housing in Iraq, the city of Kirkuk as a model using artificial intelligence for the period between 1997-2017

Mohamed Addo

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1122-1146
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168534

The research is concerned with studying the phenomenon of random housing growth in Iraq, taking the city of Kirkuk as a spatial model for application, and using the means and tools of artificial intelligence by adopting satellite visuals number 2 represented in the base year 1997 AD and the target year 2017 AD, the purpose of which was to classify the uses of the land during Old and recent for the purpose of comparison between them to find out changes in the categories of urban land use and measure the area of ​​the city’s expansion over the past 20 years with calculating the share of slum areas from this expansion, in addition to using a set of analytical algorithms through the approved program (Arc Map.v.10.7) And reaching a set of numerical results for the difference in the areas of the types of land used between the two periods, and a set of numerical statistics obtained from official authorities was also adopted that showed the size of the random housing settlements in Iraq.

Geographical analysis of the phenomenon of school wastage in middle education schools in Al-Dour city for the academic year 2018 – 2019.

Saeed Al-Douri

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1147-1175
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168535

      School wasting is the interruption of a student's academic career before completing his or her class due to dropout and failure. This problem is being suffered by the educational sector, especially the middle school stage, which has led to the emergence of groups in society who are half educated, and depriving society of many educated and qualified human resources for work and construction.
       In the queue, the percentage of school waste in the morning intermediate education schools reached (6,5%) of the total morning students, and in the evening education the percentage is (2,31 %) of the total evening school students in the city, and in the Islamic intermediate schools the percentage is (7,7%). The failure constituted the largest percentage of the study problem and for all types of intermediate studies. As the percentage of school waste in the third intermediate class, which reached in the morning studies (48,2%), and in the evening studies (100%) which sheds the light on the gap between the exams questions put by the ministry and the corrections of the questions in the schools. The spatial distribution of school wastage in the morning schools revealed to us that the highest percentage recorded in schools whose service focus is on the Al-Rashid and Yarmouk neighborhoods, despite the fact that these two neighborhoods have a spatial efficiency and functionality within the limits of the planning standards being worked, which indicates that social and economic variables have the largest role In its impact on the phenomenon being studied.

The expected housing deficit in Tikrit 2020-2030

. Saadi Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1176-1196
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168536

    تعد مشکلة السکن فی العراق بصورة عامة ومنطقة الدراسة بشکل خاص من أبرز المشاکل التی یعانی منها البلد , وعلى الرغم من الاجراءات والمبادرات التی اعتمدتها الدولة لحل تلک المشکلة من بناء المجمعات السکنیة وتوزیع قطع الاراضی او توفیر قروض الاسکان , إلا أن تلک الاجراءات لم تقدم حلول جذریة لتلک المشکلة , ومن هذا المنطلق جاء موضوع البحث الذی یهدف الى ایجاد حلول جذریة لمشکلة السکن من خلال الاعتماد على استراتیجیة شاملة لهذا الموضوع تکون کفیلة بالقضاء على أزمة السکن بشکل نهائی , توصلت الدراسة الى ان العجز السکنی العددی فی مدینة تکریت بلغ (4062) وحدة سکنیة , مقابل عجز نوعی بلغ (889) وحدة سکنیة وبعجز کلی بلغ (4951) وحدة سکنیة, وعدد الوحدات المطلوب بناءها للمدة 2020-2030 (11047) وحدة سکنیة , بینما بلغ حجم العجز السکنی المتوقع عام 2030 (4913) وحدة سکنیة , وقدمت الدراسة عدد من المقترحات لحل هذه المشکلة منها تشکیل مجلس أعلى للإسکان فی المحافظة یتکون من عدد من التخصصات یضع الخطط والسیاسات الاسکانیة لمعالجة العجز السکنی , ودعم صندوق الاسکان والتمویل المصرفی ودعم الصناعات السکنیة وخاصة بالقطاع الخاص , واکمال المشاریع الاسکانیة المتوقفة فی المدینة وخاصة مجمع الشقق السکنیة فی حی القادسیة وتوزیعه على اصحاب الدخل المحدود وبأقساط مریحة والتخطیط لأنشاء مجمعات اخرى على غرار هذا المشروع .

Spatial Analysis of the Phenomena of Dropout and Repetition in Primary Schools in Bashiqa City for the Academic Year 2019-2020

Abdul Razzaq Al Husseini

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1197-1226
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168537

The phenomena of failure and repetition are important phenomena, so this file has been present in any educational reform project undertaken by the Ministry of Education. Accordingly, this research came to shed lights on this problem, in order to highlight the dimensions of this phenomenon and touch its causes, with the development of some proposals to address  Repetition and failure rates in the educational system are an important measure of its internal efficiency, and the lower the ratio of the two indicators, this indicates the effectiveness of the system and its efficiency in reducing educational waste.
Failure and repetition are the main reason for reducing the productive efficiency in education, and they are a reason for wasting effort, time and money spent on education, as the educational sector, especially the primary school stage, suffers from many problems, the most important of which is the problem of failure and repetition that the research addressed to show the spatial distribution of this phenomenon  and its contrast between the schools of Bashiqa and its neighborhoods, and the interpretation of the picture in which this distribution appeared within a series of spatial relations between the phenomenon and a number of variables that contributed to the emergence of a group within the community, namely the illiterate group or those who barely know how to read.
The results of the research showed that there is a shortage in primary education schools in the study area, with one school for boys and one for girls, and another for mixed ones, which indicates that there is pressure on some schools that has reduced their functional efficiency, and this affected the spatial efficiency in the study area by not covering all  neighborhoods within the city and the fact that some areas are outside the influence of these schools in relation to the distance traveled, which makes it difficult to reach the school.
The percentage of school wastage due to repetition and failure in primary schools in the city reached (12.6%) of the total students, and the repetition constituted the largest percentage of the study problem (8.4%) compared to (4.2%) for failure.  The percentage of male repeaters was (59.9%) of the total number of repeaters, compared to (40.1%) for females.  As for school dropouts, the dropout rates for males were higher, as their percentage reached (73%) of the total number of dropouts, compared to (27%) for females.

Effect of Scheduling the Constant and Variable Exercise in Learning Some of Seating Grabs of Freestyle Wrestling

Ziyad Hamid; fawaz Hamdoon

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1277-1243
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168538

The research aims to Identify the following:

the differences between pre-test and post-test of the first two trial groups used to schedule the Constantexercise and the second used to schedule variable exercise in learning some of the seating catches of the freestyle wrestling game.
Learn about the differences in the post test between the two trial groups in learning some of the seating catches of the freestyle wrestling game.

The research sample consisted of (20) students per 10 students divided into an two groups to represent the first trial group used to schedule the Constantexercise and the second group used to schedule the variable exercise, the researchers prepared educational program for each trial group and the educational program of eight educational units with a weekly educational unit and a time of (90) minutes and the researchers concluded:

The educational program for constant exercise and variable exercise has led to an improvement in the artistic performance of some of the wrestling seating catches.
The first trial group used for static exercise exceeded the second trial group used for  Exercise in learning some of the seating catches of the freestyle wrestling game.

Response of a number of physiological variables and the level of some triglycerides in the blood in junior swimmers

Dalal Khuder; Shatha Korkis

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1244-1260
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168539

The study aimed to:
Identifying some physiological variables and the level of triglycerides in the blood of short distance swimmers
Identifying the differences between pre and post tests in some physiological variables and the level of triglycerides in the blood of young short distance swimmers
The researchers assumed:
The presence of significant differences in some physiological variables and the level of triglycerides in the blood of young short distance swimmers
The presence of significant differences between the pre and post tests in some physiological variables and the level of triglycerides in the blood of young short distance swimmers
The research sample consisted of junior swimmers after the two researchers deliberately identified the research community with the players of the Nineveh governorate swimming team for junior players, who are (8) players, and they are the same research sample
The following statistical methods were used (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, percentage, t-test for correlated samples, coefficient of variation) and using the statistical package (SPSS) version (11.0) for the purpose of treating the data statistically
The researchers concluded:
The effort brought about a significant change in the body temperature variable
The effort caused a significant change in the frequency of breathing
The effort brought about a significant change in the heart rate variable
The effort brought about a significant change in the systolic pressure variable
The voltage brought about a significant change in the diastolic pressure variable
Effort did not significantly change the triglyceride variable

The institutional excellence of Iraqi Premier League basketball ‎clubs

Ahmed Alsaqi

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1261-1279
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168540

Excellence is an old concept, and in terms of age, organizations of all kinds ‎and affiliations aimed to achieve success, survival and growth, and in terms of ‎modernity and as a result of the intense competition between organizations, each ‎organization tries to achieve excellence from others. Therefore, it is an expression ‎of administrative creativity and organizational excellence, which achieves ‎extraordinary high levels of performance and implementation of the production, ‎marketing, financial and other processes in the organization, resulting in results ‎and achievements that exceed what competitors achieve and satisfy the public and ‎all the specialists in the organization.‎
The current study aims to identify the level of dimensions of the ‎institutional excellence of Iraqi sports clubs, as the researchers used the descriptive ‎approach to suit the nature of the current research on a sample of players of Iraqi ‎clubs participating in the Premier League basketball, and for the purpose of ‎reaching the results of the research, the researcher used the percentage and the ‎mathematical medium and the coefficient of simple correlation as appropriate ‎statistical means.‎
The researchers concluded that Iraqi sports clubs enjoy a good level of ‎institutional excellence.‎

The Relationship of some Kinematic Variables to the Performance of Backhand Clear Stroke with Accuracy in Badminton Players

Sabhan Ahmed; Waleed Thanoon; muhammad abdulgani sultan alluhaiby

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1280-1296
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168541

The study aimed to:
- Recognize the values of a number of bio kinematical variables for the performance of the backhand clear stroke for badminton players.
- Recognize the values of the accuracy test for the performance for the backhand clear stroke of badminton players.
- Recognize the relationship between a number of bio kinematical variables and the accuracy values of the backhand clear stroke for badminton players.
In order to verify the objectives of the study, the researchers assumed the following:
- The existence of a significant relationship between the values of a number of biokinematical variables and the accuracy values of the backhand clear stroke for badminton players.
The researchers used the descriptive approach with the correlational style, for its convenience to the study nature, The research sample was selected from the players of the elite clubs registered with the Iraqi Badminton Federation, and the research sample consisted of (7) players
The researchers concluded:
- The increase of preparing phase time of the backhand clear stroke is directly related to accuracy.
- The relationship between the hitting arm's shoulder angle and the free-arm elbow angle with accuracy was direct at the maximum return of the racket, while the relationship was inverse with the forearm with the racket angle variable in the backhand clear stroke skill.
- The relationship was direct between accuracy and the lead leg's knee angle variable and inversely with the ankle angle at the moment of the shuttlecock impact in the backhand clear stroke skill.

The impact of using anchor activities strategy on learning some of basic skills in soccer

Amanj Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1297-1312
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168542

ABSTRACT
The research aimed to determine the effect of anchor activities strategy and common strategy in learning some of soccer basic skills and to identify the differences between anchor activities strategy and common strategy of the post-test. The researchers assumed that there is an effect of anchor activities strategy and common strategy in learning some of soccer basic skills and statistically significant differences in the post-test between anchor activities strategy and common strategy. The researcher utilized experimental approach, the population consisted of (144) first year students in physical education institutes in the centre of Erbil city for the academic year (2019-2020). The research samples are randomly selected that are (65) students, and the final research samples consist of (24) students, divided into two groups of (12) students for each group (B) Experimental group using anchor activities strategy. (D) Control group using common strategy. After conducting homogeneity and equivalence, the education program was applied, the main experiment began on 10/31/2019 and ended on 01/23/2020, meaning (12) weeks with (12) educational units for each group, and the time for each unit was (40) minutes, using statistical bag (SPSS). The research resulted in a number of conclusions, The educational program according to anchor activities strategy, has a positive effect on learning some of soccer basic skills, and there was a positive effect of the common strategy only in two skills (dribbling and ball controlling). Superiority of anchor activities strategy in compared to common strategy in acquisition of (short pass, middle pass, ball controlling)

Designing two tests to measure the skills of the front and back loop hitting for tennis players

Ammar Alhilaly; Nabil Al-Sharuk

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1313-1338
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168543

The research aims at designing tests for measuring the skill skills of the front and back loop hitting table tennis.  The researchers used descriptive method by analyzing the content of reference in order to find the special tests for basic skills of   In a game of table tennis, which have been reviewed by expert to determine its suitability and validity for measuring what supposed to be measured some suggested alteration have been done on it then polit-studies were conducted to get the validity, objectivity and reliability for those test to fit for the sample of the research, extracted tests have been applied on the sample consisted of (31) players, Aafter collecting the data and treating it statistically, the full specifications of the tests were reached to measure theskills of the front and back loop hitting in which the scientific parameters are available in terms of truthfulness, stability and objectivity, and the researchers recommended using these tests to measure and evaluate the level of performance of the the skills of the front and back loop hitting. for high-level applicants
 

Effect of partial root zone irrigation on growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in a gypsifereous Soil

Salwan Al-Hayani; Awss Khairo

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1339-1356
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168546

A field experiment was carried out to study  the effect of partial root zone irrigation on growth and yield of sorghum  (Sorghum bicolor L.)   in a gypsifereous Soil ,  at the experimental station of the college of Agriculture, Tikrit university, located at 34°40 49 and 43° 38 40 longitude and 129m above sea level . The experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The Irrigation treatments Included  Conventional Irrigation, Fixed Partial Root-Zone Irrigation and Alternate Partial Root-Zone Irrigation (I1  , I2 , I3). were applied during one of the four growth stages, which are the emergence phase, the vegetative phase, the flowering stage and seeds development (S1 , S2 , S3 , S4 .(
Sorghum seeds (var. Inkath) were sown during  autumn season on 7/21/2019 and harvested on 11/20/2019 . The results showed that the  Alternate Partial Root-Zone Irrigation treatment were better than other irrigation treatments in all field indicators, The vegetative stage gave the lowest results . I3 S4 treatment were  5567.69 Cm2 plant-1 ,7057.05, 4781,53 and 5241.92 kg.ha-1 for leaves area , shoots and root dry mater , grain yield respectively

Effect of Residuses Clover and Yellow Corn (spring lug) under The effect of Different Tillage Systems in the Growth Characteristics and Yield of the yellow Corn crop (autumn lug) Cultivated according to Crop Rotation system in Soil Gypsiferous

H.A.S. Jeghata; N. M. Muhawish

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1357-1386
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168547

Crop rotation system was practiced under the effect of different tillage systems to find their influence on the growth characteristics and yield of corn (autumn season) inagypsiferous soil. Clover and corn crop were planed  in spring season 2018-2019. Under the effect no tillage system (NT) and the reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) , and keeping on levels (0% , 50% , 100%) for their residues after experiment harvesting. In autumn season planted corn was (autumn season) in the same site of spring season under the same effect of the same factors studied in the first experiment in addition to the factor of the percentage of residues of the previous crop. Growth characteristics, plant height and dry matter yield were studied. After harvesting, the yield characteristics were studied (number of rows, weight of cobs , weight of 500 seeds , grain yield) for each experimental unit to determine the effect of the studied factors on it. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the NT system and the RT system in the characteristic of plant height, both of which were significantly superior to the CT system, with a percentage greater than (2.13 and 1.9) % respectively. while for the dry matter yield  the RT system was significantly superior to NT, with a percentage greater than (6.14)% and was not significant with CT. As for the yield characteristics the RT system significantly superior the NT system and the CT system in the characteristic (number of rows , weight of cobs , weight of 500 seeds , and grain yield) for the yield of maize (autumn season) and a percentage of superiority of (7.2 , 8.7 , 4.2 and 11.2) % respectively, compared to the lowest average. Also, clover residues were significantly superior over the corn residues (spring season) in plant height and dry matter in the rate of (1.72 and 8.66) % respectively, in percentase superior to (NS , 14.8 , 7.2 and 15.5 )% in the number of rows and weight of sprouts and weight of 500 seeds and the grain yield on respectively of the corn crop (autumn season) cultivated according to the crop rotation system. By increasing the level of residues from 0% to the level of 100%, the growth characteristics of plant height and dry matter increased significantly, the increase superior was (2.78 and 40.85)% , respectively. As for yield characteristics (weight of cobs , weight of 500 seeds , and grain yield) of corn yield (autumn season ) the level 100% superior on level of 0% from residues values ​​(263.34 g and  178.40 g and 6685.09 kg ha-1) and in the rate (10.5 , 7.6 and 16)%, respectively. As for the number of rows there was no significant between the levels and the three interferences treatment NT.C.C2Re100% and RT.C.C2Re100% gave the high significance in plant height a value of (198.33) cm for both. The treatment is NT.C.C2Re100% with a value of (5663.9) kg ha-1 in dry matter yield and the treatment is RT.C.C1Re 100% in the number of rows a value of (16.33) row sp-1 and the treatment NT.C.C2Re 100% in the weight of 500 seeds  a value of (189.11) g and in the grain yield total value (7740.4) kg ha-1 compared to the other study treatments.

Effect of Boron and Nitrogen Level under Different Plant Spacings on some Growth and Yield Parameters of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) in a gypsiferous soil

A. Al-Saadon; N. Muhawish

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1387-1418
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168549

A field experiment was conducted in the fields of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tikrit University for the 2019-2020 agricultural season to study the effect of planting distances and the level of nitrogen fertilization and boron on the growth and yield of broccoli in gypsum soil. The study included three factors, the first factor was the distance between plants, and it included four distances (35, 45, 55, and 65 cm) (D1, D2, D3, and D4), respectively. The second factor was the level of nitrogen application, which includes two levels of nitrogen 70 and 140 (kg N ha-1) (N1 and N2), respectively. The third factor was the level of boron addition and it includes two levels of boron, which are (without boron application and 6 kg B. ha-1) (B0 and B1), respectively. Results showed that the nitrogen level N2 gave a clear significant increase compared to the N1 level in dry matter yield (the first cut), reaching (21.58 g. Plant-1), while the first level N1 reached (17.94 g(. Dry matter yield (the second cut) reached (84.39 g. Plant-1) in the second level N2, while in the first level it reached (74.36 g. Plant-1) and the N2 level was significantly superior over N1 level for some indicators of vegetative growth, plant height (cm) and leaf area (cm2). -1) and the number of leaves (leaf-plant-1) and thus the yield increased significantly in this level of nitrogen at the N1 level, as the total yield of floral heads at the N2 level was (25.865 tons. Ha-1) and at the N1 level (22.6 ton ha-1). The addition of boron fertilizer at a rate of (6 kg B. ha -1) led to a significant increase in the dry matter yield (the first and second cuts) and to a significant increase in the yield, as well as in the boron concentration in the shoot and the floral heads, and the vegetative growth indicators of broccoli. Planting at a 65 cm among broccoli plants (D4) led to a significant increase in dry matter yield (first and second cut) and an increase in plant yield. The superiority was significant over other distances except for the distance D1, which gave the highest total yield of broccoli floral heads, reaching 26.63 (tons ha-1). 1), whereas the distances D2, D3, and D4 gave a total yield of 25.38 , 22.71, and 22.21 (ton ha-1), respectively. The triple interaction between nitrogen (N) and planting distances (D) and boron (B) gave the highest value at the treatment (D4N2B1) which was significantly superior over other treatments for most of the studied traits, except the total yield of the floral heads where the superiority was in favor of treatment D1N2B1.

Effect of Foliar and ground additions of chelated micronutrient in In the concentration of iron and zinc in leaves and tubers Potatoes Solaum tuberosum L. in gypsiferous Soil

ahmed Al-Falahi

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1419-1446
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168550

A field experiment was conducted in the fields of the College of Agriculture, Tikrit University for the 2019-2020 agricultural season to study the comparison of ground and leaf additives to iron and zinc chelated fertilizers in the growth and yield of potatoes in gypsum soil. The experiment was carried out using RCBD with three replications. The study included two types of chelated fertilizers (chelated iron and chelated zinc) and two methods of adding fertilizers (adding ground and adding paper) (T1 and T2) respectively. And three levels of zinc (0, 0.5, and 1 kg Zn h-1) (Z0, Z1, and Z2) respectively of Zn-DTPA and three levels of iron (0, 5 and 01 kg Fe h-1) (F0, F1, and F2) respectively. Arrangement of Fertilizer (Fe-DTPA). The addition of iron led to a significant increase in the concentration of two elements (Fe, Zn) in potato leaves. The percentage increase of iron was 23.55 and 39.28%, for zinc, and 3.122 and 8.034% for F1 and F2 levels, respectively, compared to the F0 comparison treatment. The foliar addition of iron and zinc increased the concentration of the above elements in the tubers with rates of 19.91% and 40.45, respectively, compared to the addition of the ground. The addition of zinc at a rate of (0.5 and 1 kg Zn. h-1) significantly increased the concentration of the above elements, as the percentage of zinc increased by 36.94 and 57.53%, respectively, compared to treatment Z0, while the addition of zinc did not give a significant increase in iron concentration. The highest concentration of potato plants of the elements of iron and zinc reached 274.45 and 34.72 mg. Kg-1 when treatment T2F2Z2. The addition of iron gave a significant increase in the concentration of two elements (Fe, Zn) in potato tubers, and the percentage increase of iron was 37.65. And 70.60% for zinc, 3.114 and 4.561% for F1 and F2 levels, respectively, compared to the F0 comparison treatment. The foliar addition of iron and zinc increased the iron and zinc concentration in the tubers with rates of 15.76% and 8.240%, respectively, compared to the addition of the ground. Addition of zinc at a rate of (0.5 and 1 kg Zn.h-1) resulted in a significant increase in zinc concentration of 18.06 and 23.22%, respectively, compared to treatment Z0, while it did not give a significant increase in iron concentration.

Using of Almond Milk in the Production of Ice Cream

Abdalrahman AL-Hyali; Ghanem Hassan

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1447-1464
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168551

        أجریت هذه الدراسة لغرض تصنیع مثلجات لبنیة خالیة من سکر اللاکتوز، بالإضافة الى الفوائد الصحیة لحلیب اللوز، وبیان تأثیر استبدال حلیب الابقار بحلیب اللوز على الصفات العامة للمنتوج، تم استخدام طریقة الاستخلاص بالتنقیع، احتوى حلیب اللوز الناتج على نسبة اعلى من الدهن والبروتین بالمقارنة مع حلیب الابقار بینما انخفضت نسبة المواد الصلبة اللادهنیة فی حلیب اللوز الناتج، وتم استبدال حلیب الابقار الطازج بحلیب اللوز بنسب استبدال (35% ، 70% ، 100%) ولوحظ فی العینات المصنعة من حلیب اللوز ارتفاع نسبة المواد الصلبة الکلیة وارتفاع طفیف فی النسبة المئویة للدهن بسبب تعدیل نسبة الدهن فی المخلوط باستخدام القشدة وانخفاض فی النسبة المئویة للسکریات الکلیة بینما ارتفعت النسبة المئویة للبروتین والرماد وکذلک ارتفعت قیمة الأس الهیدروجینی للمخلوط وانخفضت النسبة المئویة للحموضة التسحیحیة للمنتج وارتفع الوزن النوعی للمخلوط بینما انخفض الوزن النوعی للمنتج المصنع من حلیب اللوز بالمقارنة مع حلیب الابقار وارتفعت اللزوجة النسبیة وکذلک النسبة المئویة للریع وازدادت النسبة المئویة للانکماش وازدادت مقاومة المنتج للانصهار وارتفعت السعرات الحراریة للمنتج وازدادت درجات التقییم الحسی مع زیادة نسب الاستبدال بحلیب اللوز حتى بعد الخزن لمدة أسبوعین وکذلک ازداد العدد الکلی للبکتریا وبکتریا القولون وبکتریا  Staph. aureus  فی عینات حلیب اللوز.

Effect of Animal Organic Fertilizers and Boron spray in Growth of local Mungbean (Vigna radiate L.)

Wissam Othman; Atheer Mustafa

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1465-1478
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168552

A field experiment was carried out during the autumn season (2020) in one of the agricultural fields of a farmer in the Sufiyah area of Ramadi district in Anbar province using sandy loam textured soil. The aim of this study is to find out the effect of animal manure and boron spraying in the growth of the local mung bean crop (Vigna radiata L.). The experiment was applied to the factorial experiment system according to the design of the Randomized Completely Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications, which included four levels of animal manure (0, 6, 12 and 18) tons. ha-1 and three boron concentrations (0, 50 and 100) mg B. L-1. The following results are shown. The levels of animal manure have affected significantly in most of the studied properties, where the level 12 tons. ha-1 gives the highest average for both plant height (78.50 cm). While the level of 18 tons.ha-1 gives the highest average for each of the branches in the plant (6.71) branches. Plant-1 and leaf area (2038.00) cm2.Plant1. As for spraying boron, it was significantly superior in some of the studied traits. The concentration was recorded at 50 mg B. L1- The highest average plant height is (67.80) cm. The effect of the interaction between the levels of compost and boron concentrations is significantly effects on the height of the plant, the number of branches in the plant, the leaf area.

Evaluating compost Prosopis Farcta and Alhagi plants, and using Carrier for Inoculant for Rhizobium trifolii isolated from Red clover Trifolium Pratense

N. Alramli; A. E. Alkurtany

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1479-1497
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168553

Red clover plants were cultivated for the first time in Iraq for the purpose of obtaining the bacterial nodules containing Rhizobium trifolii sp, with the aim of producing bio-fertilizer from nitrogen-fixing Streptococcus rhizobium, and sufficient quantities of Prosopis farcta and Alhagi plants were collected to produce compost-far compost from the Asdera area. Ashur sub-district - Sharqat district on the date of 5-7-2018, and the waste was milled with a straw cutting machine, and a pile of crushed thistle and brains plants was made, 2 m in length, 1.25 m in height and 1.20 m in height, and the required additions were made of crushed calcium carbonate (lime rocks), urea and a quantity of The soil was spread over the layers of the pile, moistening and stirring, with the aim of making compost by the method of aerobic decomposition, and the degradation process lasted 60 days, it was estimated that the biological groups of bacteria and fungi and Actinomycetes in compost weekly during the process of decomposition, The results showed that the number of bacterial colonies exceeded the number of Actinomycetes, then fungi, in all stages of decomposition, except for the sixth week, in which the number of Actinomycetes outperformed bacteria and fungi as their numbers were 10 * 10
6
, 7 * 10
6
and 6 * 10
4
on the relay, A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the compost carrying Carriers of the Streptococcus Rhizobium trifolii vaccine isolated from the Red Clover cultivar Trifolium Pratense and compare its efficiency with the commercial peat moss. The other was the bearer of the bacterial pollen is Peat moss, and the results showed the superiority of compost over peat moss as it was a bacterial carrier of the Rhizobia vaccine in the characteristics of dry vegetative weight, dry root weight, plant length, number of branches, number of bacterial nodes, the results were 165 g plant, 38.36 g plant and 60.6 Cm, 39 plant branches, 24 plant knots for compost, 158 g of plants, 38.30 g of plants, 58.8 cm 38 cm branches and 23 plant bacterial nodes, for peat moss respectively.

Achemical and Microbiological study of Healthy Labneh Made from Different Types of Milk

Shahad Mohammed; Ghanem Hassan

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1498-1512
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168554

The aim of this study was to use different kinds of milk for manufacturing of healthy soft Labneh with addition of the probiotics and chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties studies were performed of the Labnah during different storage periods namely, 1, 8 and 16 days. Results showed that, the labneh which was manufactured from 100% whole buffalo milk contained high percent of protein, fats and total solid, and ash was higher than those labneh  which were manufactured from other kinds of milk (cow milk, skim buffalo milk). As these percentage were 10.63% ,14.97% ,33.34% ,1.61% respectively and these percentage increased with increasing storage period. Results showed that, the Labnah which was manufactured from 100% whole buffalo milk contained less percentage of moisture than labneh of other kinds of milk, which was 66.66%  of age 1 day and with using traditional starter and became 66.52% of age 8 days and then gradually reduced with increasing storage period. and its acidity was rapidly developed compared with other labneh and the acidity was increased when healthy bacteria was added with increasing storage period until accomplished 2.85%  of age 16 days. While it was the lowest percentage of acidity in the sample of labneh made from skim milk as it was 1.24% at the same age. The numbers of healthy bacteria in the soft labnah were within the logic and acceptable number which was 106 C.F.U/g labneh until the end of storage period. However, concerning to the numbers of yeast and molds, it was noticed that their numbers were increased with increasing the storage period, whereas, the numbers of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli bacteria, results showed that, the labnah was unoccupied of it.                                     

The relationship of some personal and functional variables to the level of the usage of extension methods by agricultural extension workers in Salah al-Din Governorate

Bashar AL-Farhan; Sahab AL-Ajeeli

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1513-1531
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168555

    The Study aimed to identify the level of the usage of agricultural extension methods by agricultural extension workers in Salah al-Din Governorate in general, As well as determine the correlation relationship between the level of the usage of agricultural extension methods and a number of related variables, The Study population included all employees working in agricultural extension at the Salah al-Din Agriculture Directorate and its affiliated agricultural divisions and the Agricultural Training and Extension Center in the governorate, whose number reached (300) agricultural employees. A random sample of 50% was chosen after excluding the pre- test sample of (20) Respondents included by measuring the stability of the questionnaire, so the number of respondents became (140) respondents. The questionnaire form was designed, which consists of two parts:
    The first part included the data related to the employees who use the extension methods in the extension work, while the second part included a measure of the level of the usage of the extension methods in the extension work, and the questionnaire was presented to a group of experts to identify the face validity and authenticity of the content, and the reliability of the questionnaire was measured by the Alpha Cronabach method, reached a value of (0.86), and for data analysis a set of statistical methods were used, including (range, frequency, percentage, standard deviation, arithmetic mean, simple correlation coefficient of Pearson, Spearman's correlation coefficient, (t) test, percentage weight, and Alpha Cronbach coefficient), the results showed that the majority of the respondents used the extension methods in general at a medium level that tends to rise, The results also showed a significant correlation relationship between the usage of the extension methods by the respondents in the extension work and some of the following personal and functional variables: (Academic qualification, job specialization, Duration of the agricultural extension service, Attitude towards   of the usage of extension methods in extension work), and the researcher concluded that the majority of the respondents working in agricultural extension in Salah al-Din Governorate use extension methods at a high rate, and the researcher recommended work to support the extension methods used by extension workers Agriculture by the Governorate Agriculture Directorate and its affiliated agricultural divisions.

Infection with Some Parasitic Diseases in some children aged less than one year—14 years and the most important complications associated with infection in Nineveh Governorate

Najwa Al-Zobaidy

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1532-1549
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168556

Abstract
An epidemic and diagnostic study was conducted to know the spread of some gastrointestinal parasites among children at Al-Khansaa Educational Hospital, at Ibin-Al-Atheer Educational Hospital, and at
Al- Mosul General Hospital starting from 3/10/2019 to20 /9/2020.
The samples were examined using direct survey and the samples were checked to the stool whereby (200) children were examined and it's found that the total rate of infection reached (58.5%), and the highest rate of Entamoeba histolytica infection reached (42.9%) then followed the infection of Giardia lamblia which recorded (21.3%) while the infection of Enterobius vermicularis was high and reached (35.8%).
The present study showed that males are more vulnerable to infection than females. The male rate recorded (74.4%) while the female rate recorded (25.6%).
As for places of residence, the left side of the city recorded high infection rate which reached (66.7%), whereas the right side of the city recorded (33.3%).
Also, some complications emerged due to the infection of gastrointestinal parasites such anemia. In the case of Enterobius vermicularis the anaemia rate reached (90.5%), also a high rate in anaemia was recorded for both Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia and reached (68%).
So, recommendations focus on that the children should be clean especially their hands, and face should be clean before and after having meals and also the towels must be clean, besides each member of the family should have his/her own teeth brush and the nursing bottles ought to be washed and sterilized.

تأثیر زمن التنمیش على مورفولوجیة سطوح زرنیخید الغالیوم المنتجة بطریقة التنمیش الکیمیائی الضوئی باستخدام ضوء الشمس

Islam Nasser Yousif لا یوجد

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1550-1570
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168557

تم تحضیر زرنیخید الغالیوم المسامی من شرائح زرنیخید الغالیوم البلوری نوع (n-type) وذات اتجاه بلوری (111) ومقاومیة (0.00245 Ohm cm) عن طریق التنمیش الکیمیائی الضوئی باستخدام ضوء الشمس کمصدر ضوئی وذلک لتمیزها على العدید من مصادرها الصناعیة الاخرى کالمصابیح الکهربائیة المختلفة (مصباح الهالوجین، مصباح التنکستن) والمصادر الضوئیة المختلفة فی اللیزر، وتم دراسة تأثیر زمن التنمیش على المورفولوجیة السطحیة لزرنیخید الغالیوم باستخدام مجهر القوة الذریة (AFM)، وبینت النتائج إمکانیة الحصول على طبقات من زرنیخید الغالیوم المسامی ذات طبیعة سطح مختلفة عند تغییر أزمنة التنمیش (50 min، 40 min، 30 min) وثبات کل من ترکیز الحامض عند (HF 40%) وشدة الإضاءة عند (8901 mw/cm2)، حیث تکونت طبقات مسامیة بسمک (31.70 nm، 30.13 nm، 15.28 nm) وبمعدل أقطار للحبیبات والجسیمات النانویة (64.31 nm، 98.73 nm، 80.26 nm) على التوالی، وإن کل من الخشونة السطحیة وسمک الطبقة المسامیة للشرائح المحضرة تزداد عند زیادة زمن التنمیش وتقل عند نقصان زمن تنمیشها، وُوجد ان إنتاج تراکیب زرنیخید الغالیوم المسامی النانوی ذات ضرورة مهمة للحصول على سطح بمواصفات ممیزة من أجل استخدامها فی نبائط الالکترونات الضوئیة والخلایا الشمسیة.

Simulation the Absorbance Layer CZTS in Solar Cell for Varying Windows and Buffer Layers for Different Electrical Parameters to Achieve Optimum Performance

BASHAR MOHAMMED

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1571-1585
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168558

Abstract:
In this research, we rely on the base cell) MoS2/CZTS/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:AL ( which was designed and its outputs are ( Voc=1.1074V, Jsc=29.5356 mA / cm2, FF = 70.29%,  =23.00% ).
In this study, Windows layers were tested using simulation programmed SCAPS-1D about layers (ZnO, SnO2, ZnO:AL), where ( ZnO:AL ) was selected as window layer, and it was found that the best thickness of the windows layer (0.1 μm). Also the different Buffer layers of the basic solar cell ( CdS, ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, In2S3 ) were tested, where (ZnS) was selected as the )Buffer layer( where it was found that the best thickness was (0.12 μm).
After adopting both the window layers and Buffer layers, the modified cell became )MoS/CZTS/ZnS/i-ZnO/ZnO:AL( the thickness of the Absorption layer was tested, and it was found that the best thickness of the Absorption layer ( CZTS ) was ( 1.5µm ), then the cell output (Voc = 1.0596V, Jsc=28.1390 mA/cm2, FF= 88.41%, =26.37%).

Separation and Identification of some amino acids in the bark, sapwood, and heartwood of Ceratonia siliqua L. trees growing in Mosul.

Ahmed Alkhero

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1586-1604
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168559

This study was performed to separate and identify a number of amino acids present in the bark, sapwood, and heartwood of Ceratonia siliqua L growing in Mosul, seven of the amino acids were identified in the bark, eight in the sapwood, and seven in the heartwood. In general, the number of identified acids in the carob understudy is eight, which are: Aspartic Acid, Phenylalanine Acid, Glumatic Acid, Lysine Acid, Glycine Acid, Tryptophan Acid, Lucien Acid, and Serine Acid. The highest quantities were in the sapwood and the lowest was in the bark. These results are consistent with the results of the study samples (bark, sapwood, and heartwood) of carob trees. The bark, sapwood, and heartwood are similar in terms of amino acids with the exception of serine, which did not appear in both bark and heartwood, and glutamic acid did not appear in sapwood, the presence of this large number of amino acids in carob wood may be due to the ability of carob trees to fix nitrogen in root nodes.

تشخیص بعض الاحماض الدهنیة ومرکب Cucurbitacin فی مستخلص زیت بعض اجزاء وکالس نبات القرع الجبلی Cucurbita maxima

islam abdullah

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1605-1620
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168560

The Present Study found out the extraction the oil of Cucurbita maxima and determination the ratio of it in seeds , leaves , hypocotyle stems and in callus of this parts like percentage.
This study singled out Fatty acids like palmitic acid , stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and also Singled out new three Fatty acids like, Myristic acid, arachidic acid and Lauric acid first time in this plant besides the qualitative diagnosis of cucurbitacin and defining it’s isomers Cuc E, Cuc B ,Cuc I, and Cuc L by using thin layer chromatoghraphy (TLC).
The Present Study found out the extraction the oil of Cucurbita maxima and determination the ratio of it in seeds , leaves , hypocotyle stems and in callus of this parts like percentage.
This study singled out Fatty acids like palmitic acid , stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and also Singled out new three Fatty acids like, Myristic acid, arachidic acid and Lauric acid first time in this plant besides the qualitative diagnosis of cucurbitacin and defining it’s isomers Cuc E, Cuc B ,Cuc I, and Cuc L by using thin layer chromatoghraphy (TLC).

Effect of Adding Fenugreek and Sprouted Fenugreek Seeds on the Chemical Properties of Wheat Flour

Mina Wahab; Sabiha Al-Jubouri

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1621-1638
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168561

   In this research, some chemical and physical properties of sprouted and non-sprouted fenugreek powder were studied and the proportions of its chemical components (moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates) were compared with wheat flour. The effect of sprouting on chemical properties, amino acids, minerals and the production of compound flour by substituting a molecule of flour was studied. Wheat with sprouted and non-sprouted fenugreek powder at rates of 5.2%, where the results of chemical analysis showed a high content of sprouted fenugreek from protein, moisture and ash, and a decrease in fat and carbohydrates compared with non-sprouted fenugreek. The study showed that the content of amino acids increased in the sprouted fenugreek powder compared with the non-sprouted fenugreek and wheat flour, where the percentage of essential amino acids for the sprouted fenugreek powder reached 33.8 g/100 g compared with the non-sprouted fenugreek powder and wheat flour, where the essential amino acids in both of them amounted to 27.52 g/100 g and 24.87 g/100 g, respectively, and the color acceptability decreased with a relative increase The replacement method, where the loofah manufactured from adding 2% of the sprouted fenugreek was more acceptable to the members of the evaluation committee than the addition percentage of 5%.

Discourse Analysis of Arabic Nursery Rhymes

Hiba Sheet; Mazin Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1639-1669
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168562

Nursery rhyme is a kind of oral literature that is recognized in all languages as one of the most important characteristics of baby talk. The present study investigates nursery rhymes  in  Arabic from a discoursal point of view. The study aims at making a schematic discoursal analysis of nursery rhymes in Arabic through examining their thematic, linguistic and cultural features. To achieve these aims, the study hypothesizes that( 1) religious cultural references are more characteristic of Arabic nursery rhymes, and( 2) Arabic nursery rhymes have macrostructural and superstructural organization. Data analysis is conducted on the basis of Van Dijk's socio-cognitive approach of discourse analysis. This model consists of the main components of text, namely, Macrostructure (thematic), Superstructure (schematic), Microstructure (linguistic) and Cultural features. The study has revealed the following main findings. First,  Arabic rhymes pay more attention to religious themes. Second, typical Arabic nursery rhymes is their schematic structure. They comprise all the conventional categories; introduction, content and closing in the same hierarchical organization. Third, at the microstructural level, Arabic nursery rhymes show differences in their semantic, syntactic, stylistic and rhetorical features. Such differences are represented either in the type of the used elements used or in the frequency of their occurrence. Fourth, Arabic nursery rhymes are characterized by much use of religious references.

Field Performance of Three Rapeseed Genotypes (Brassica napus L.) Under Different Levels of Plant Density in Nineveh Governorate

Saad Al-Doori

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1670-1683
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168563

Two field experiments were conducted for rapeseed crop (Brassica napus L.) during two winter successive seasons 2018-2019, 2019-2020 at AL-Hamdanea location which is far Mosul city about (30km). Each experiment was conducted according to factorial experiment in randomized completely block design with three replications. Its included three plant population (111.110, 166.666 and 333.332 plants. hectar-1) with three genotypes of rapeseed crop (Talayeh, Okapi and Rainbow).
The results could be summarized as:
The plant population of 111.110 plants. hectar-1 gave the highest mean for characters stem diameter, number of primary branches, number of silique /plant, leaf area, number of seed per silique, weight of thousand seed, and oil, protein percentage in 2018-2019, 2019-2020 seasons, While the plant population of 333.332 plants. hectar-1 gave a high mean for plant height in both growing seasons.
The genotypes differed significantly in all the related characteristics, the Okapi genotype come over the other genotypes in plant height, stem diameter, number of branches/plant, leaf area, number of silique/plant, number of seed/silique, 1000 seeds weight (g.) seed yield (ton.ha-1), oil, protein percentage of seeds and oil, protein yield (ton.ha-1) in both growing seasons. The interaction between plant population and genotypes was significant in plant height in both growing seasons.
 

Photocatalytic, Oxygen-Generating PEDOT/Nano-Ni Composite film with Sustained High Activity

Mohammed AL sultan; Assim sabah

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1684-1693
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168570

Composite PEDOT films, prepared using vapour phase polymerisation incorporating with nanoparticulate Ni (‘nano-Ni’) on FTO glass have been studied as photoelectrocatalysts of water oxidation in 0.2 M Na2SO4 electrolyte at different pH. The PEDOT/nano-Ni Films proved to be active at high pH generating current densities at 0.80 V (vs Ag/AgCl) of 0.655 mA/cm2 (including a photocurrent of 0.4 mA/cm2) under light illumination of 0.25 Sun. A variety of techniques were used to study and characterized the films, including: cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperograms, gas chromatography and scanning electron microscope.

Investigating the Relation of Anxiety to Learners' Listening Comprehension Proficiency Using Visual Strategies

Iman Doski; Ziyad Rasheed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1715-1730
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168571

Listening comprehension is a cognitive approach to deal with spoken texts. However, listening to foreign language causes anxiety to the learners of that language. Two null-hypotheses have been employed to investigate the relation of anxiety to learners' listening comprehension proficiency using visual strategies, namely, picture strip story strategy and video strategy.
To find out the relation between learners' anxiety and their listening comprehension proficiency by using picture strip story strategy and video strategy, the researcher has used a questionnaire which is consisted of (20) items. The questionnaire is Likert-type scale . A qualitative method research design is adopted. And the sample consists of (50) participants whom are randomly selected and split equally into two groups. The subjects have been studying at Department of English /Basic Education College / Mosul University. Each group is taught by using one strategy as in table(1):
Table (1) Groups of the Study
Group A Group B
Picture Strip Story Strategy Video Strategy

Pearson Correlation Formula is used for data-analysis. The results are as follows:
 There is a positive relation between learners' listening anxiety and their listening comprehension proficiency of the group whom taught by using picture strip story strategy.
 There is a positive relation between learners' listening anxiety and their listening comprehension proficiency of the group whom taught by using video strategy.

. The Employment of Accents at the Training Interpreting Sessions: Perspectives of Iraqi Translation Students.

Wehaj Esmail; Sameer Mahdi

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1731-1745
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168572

In the field of interpreting and teaching translation, learning British English or American English accents are essential issues for the students of translation.
This study aims to highlight the perspectives of translation students at two Iraqi Universities (a state university: Mustansiriyah and a private one: Al-Ma'moon) towards the value of the British or American accents during leaning and translating processes. Therefore, 174 students who listened to the same texts in the two accents and from different topics such as tourism and hotel management, business management, agriculture and forest, etc… heard the auditable texts totally. They were asked to give their conceptions to 12 statements depending on the scale of Likert "Five-point" that aims to know their perspectives from the weakest (never or almost never) to the strongest (always or almost always). The results of the answers were described and analyzed according to the SPSS 16 program. The students' given answers to the questions in the questionnaire are intended to highlight their perspectives towards the role of the accent, which proves that accent has an essential role in translating into English, and it requires to be heavily focused by the translation trainers throughout the interpreting pedagogy.

THE RELATIONSHIP OF VITAMIN D WITH THE REGULARITY OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE IN INFERTILE WOMEN

NAJLAA SALIM MOHMED ALJADER

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1746-1753
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168574

Vitamin D affects infertility among women. Via vitamin D, were tested in 60 women with infertility and 40 control group. The results showed a low significant elevation in the concentration of Vit. D in infertile women, compared to the healthy women at a significant level of (P = 0.001). The results also showed a significant decrease in the level of the vitamin in infertile women compared with healthy women (control group) at a probability level (P = 0.01) for all age groups, the age is a major factor affecting vitamin D levels, and the elderly are usually more vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency due to the decrease in the skin's production of vitamin D with age and fertility decreases, especially at the age more than of 35 due to the decrease in the egg quantity and quality, as an egg is sent from the ovaries to the female's uterus every month from the time of puberty to menopause. The level of vitamin in infertile women with a regular menstrual cycle is higher compared to infertile women with an irregular menstrual cycle, as this indicates the possibility of vitamin D deficiency, one of the factors that affect the regularity of the cycle of menstruation. This vitamin had a strong positive relationship with Irregular menstruation for different age groups. Finally, the result revealed vitamin D as a new indicator of increasing infertility and miscarriage risk for women.

Translating the speech act of Insinuating in Shakespearean Tragedy, Othello

Anfal Qubais Alfahady

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1754-1777
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168575

Abstract:
The present research intents to study the speech act of insinuating in the Shakespearean tragedy Othello .In the light of pragmatics in general and speech acts theory in particular.
Both literary translation and linguistic, represented by speech act theory deal with the performative function of language rather than the communicative role of language. Both of them highlight the implicit meaning of the literary text through tracing the characters motives, emotions, needs, and concerns for mapping the implicit meaning of the text and conveying it into the target language. The Arabic translation of Othello, introduced by the national council for translation, Egypt represents some translation problems of the speech act of insinuating in the Shakespearean tragedy. Thus, the present study aims at highlighting the main principles of speech act theory that can reflect insinuating in Shakespearean Tragedy, Othello. In addition, it connect the main principles of speech act theory to the literary translation through selected texts of the Arabic translation of Othello, translated by Muhamed Mustafa Badawy.
The research hypothesizes that :1.speech act theory can be applied to this particular literary genre (tragedy),and 2.the source and target languages might exhibit network of different patterns of the acts. Finally the study ends with some conclusions .

Determination of Carrier Parts of Some Microorganisms in Body of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana in Some Parts of Mosul City

Maan Mohamed; Omar Kassim; Israa Lateef

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1778-1788
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168577

 Compared to other organisms, insects are found in all the world. The diversity and evolutional success of insects depend on its relation with useful microorganisms. These microorganisms are found mostly in the intestines and epidermis of the insect.  A Cockroach is one of the most important medical insects. All of the species of this insect live in dirty environments especially sewers. There are two species of disease-causing cockroaches: the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) and American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The study aims at defining the role of P. americana as a carrier of disease-causing bacteria by isolating and determining these microorganisms from the body of the cockroach.  The study included (18) samples of P. americana. Each sample was autopsied to get external parts as well as the digestive channel. These specimens underwent a bacteriological study to isolate and diagnose the species of bacteria and which parts carry them. Isolation results showed the diagnosing of (22) isolates of about 13 different species of bacteria, (82%) of isolates came from the external parts of the insect while (18%) isolated from the digestive channel. Most isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae in 68.18%. First place went to Serratia marcescens with 36.36% of the isolated species then Kluyvera intermedia 13.64% . As for the rest species, all shared a ratio of 4.55%.

Thematic and Informational Structure in English Journalistic Discourse

Yusra Hussein; Mazin Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1815-1847
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168579

           Theme is the point of departure of a clause. The organization of sentence has two parts theme and rheme. The theme typically contains familiar known or given information , and  frequently serves to present given information. Rheme is the rest of the message , so rheme contains new information. The present study investigates thematic and informational structure in journalistic discourse headline and text in nominalization , nominal group, and passivation. The journalistic discourse consists mainly of declarative sentences to avoid breaks. The word order of thematic element patterns and their organization occur according to the term of markedness , unmarked and marked themes. The sentence elements in thematic position attract the readers' attention as noted by Halliday (2014).  The data of the study have been taken from varied English newspaper, magazine and journals. The models are Halliday's (1985,2014) functional grammar and Paltridge's thematic progressions ( Zig-Zag , Continuous reiteration , C gap , C type  and  multiple theme /split rheme).
 

Vagueness in the Scientific Journals Abstracts

Ahlam AL-Zebari; . Wayees . AL-Mimari

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1789-1814
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168578

A word or a group of words is vague when its meaning imprecise. A research paper begins with an abstract. An abstract should be precise, concise, specific, and coherent. The problem of the present study focuses on to what extent are writers aware of vagueness in writing abstracts? The current study aims at exploring the sources of vagueness in research abstracts. In order to achieve this, it is hypothesized that: research writers of Iraqi academic journals are not aware of vague words or expression in writing abstracts which leads to vague interpretations of sentences. The researcher has analysed two abstracts following Kempson’s (1977) model of vagueness. The model is based on four types of vagueness: referential vagueness, indeterminacy of meaning, lack of specification in the meaning of an item and disjunction in the specification of the meaning of an item. The abstracts are taken from “AL-Kitab Journal for Pure Sciences”, Iraq. The results of the study show that the researchers used 16 cases of vagueness for the sample of the study. Referential vagueness scored the highest percentage (75%), lack of specification in the meaning of an item (18.75%), the indeterminacy of meaning (6.25%), and finally, no cases of disjunction in the specification of the meaning of an item were found. The analysis also shows that the cause of including vague expressions in the analysed abstracts is that researchers are not aware of such vagueness due to the lack of knowledge in such expressions and using imprecise words which verifies the research hypothesis.

Molecular and Serological Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in Random Sample of pregnant and aborted women of Nineveh

Najah Al-Omer; Aliaa Al-Marsoomy

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1848-1864
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168580

The present study is to identify the rate of parasitic disease of toxoplasmosis among among females from 120   pregnant and aborted women attending to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the AL-Kansaa, AL- Salaam Hospital and 2 private clinics during (September 2019-febrauary2020). Three methods of tests to search for toxoplasmosis latex test, combo IgG and IgM rapid cassette and finally by PCR. Questionnaire is applying by pregnant and aborted patients and according to the information  the females was divided to groups involved age, career, gestational period, housing cat or not in living zone ,number of abortion ,blood group and according to residence.  The results show big rate of toxoplasmosis by latex test the positive cases 62(62%).the result re-tested by another serological method combo IgG and IgM rapid cassette and give the result 44 (73.33%) and 6 (9.09%) for IgG and IgM respectively. The result was confirmed by third test using molecular test conventional PCR to show the result 32 (51.61%). We used EDTA tube for whole blood for PCR, gel tube for serological testes. Three methods of tests to search for toxoplasmosis latex test, combo IgG and IgM rapid cassette and finally by PCR.

The Role of Vitamin C against Structural Changes in Testis of Male Albino Rats Induced by Tramadol and its Withdrawal

Rana Ahmad; Abduljabbar AL-Hubaity; Nadwa Alazow

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1865-1878
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168581

Nowadays tramadol misused and abused is wide spread mainly among young and middle-aged people, especially males as it used in management of premature ejaculation and for orgasm extension. However, these patients are susceptible to many problems after long term administration of tramadol including histological changes on testis. This study is designed to study the effect of tramadol on the histological change of testis and its withdrawal effect with the possibility of vitamin C to reverse these changes. Fifty adult male albino rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into five equal groups: Group A (control group), rats were injected with distilled water. Group B (treated with tramadol only)(TGI), rats were injected with   tramadol (50mg/kg b.wt.). Group C (treated with tramadol + vitamin C) (TGII), rats  were injected with vitamin C (100mg/Kg/b.wt.) half hour prior to tramadol injection in the same dose  as in TGI.  These animals were injected intraperitoneally (I.P.) for 4 wks. Group D (treated group B withdrawal) (TGI WD), rats treated as group B then left for two wks. as withdrawal group. Group E (treated group C withdrawal) (TGII WD), rats treated as group C then left for two wks. as withdrawal group. At the end of the experiment, the rats were killed and testis was removed and preserved in a fixative and processed to get paraffin wax block and prepared for microscopic examination. The results showed histological changes in the tramadol treated rats were irregularity and atrophy of S.T. with widening of the interstitisum along with arrest of spermatogenesis at level of spermatid in most of seminiferous tubules (S.T.) while in others it arrested at level of spermatocyte with exfoliated germinal epithelium in the lumens of most tubules. Vacuoles are present in cytoplasm of spermatocytes with detachment of degenerated germinal epithelial cells from basement membrane, the interstitisum has been shown vacuolated homogenous acidophilic material. After adding of vitamin C in Group C (TGII), the histological findings have been shown improvement in the histological structure of testis. In both withdrawal groups (Group D &E), there were signs of improvement in the S.T. mainly in group E that appeared somewhat like normal. This study was concluded that tramadol caused structural changes in testicular tissues with poor reversibility following withdrawal but adding vitamin C has role in alleviated the histological changes and accelerated the reversibility.

Generation of non- thermal plasma jet using ZVS Driver with flyback transformer

Safa Aldeen Sulyman; Saba Sulyman

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1879-1895
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168582

The DBD plasma jet are generated using ZVS with flyback transformer, The equivalent circuit of  ZVS driver was simulated by Multisim program, The data from simulation gave a good agreement with experimental data voltage, power and frequency . Furthermore, the electrical and optical properties of DBD plasma jet  are  obtained using analytical techniques,  and it have been found that the system operates at voltages exceeding 9 kV, frequency 100 kHz and power of 5.67 Watts. Also, the  measurement of reactive species produced in non-thermal plasmas NO and NOx with time are investigated. This jet was developed for medical applications and the effects of its emissions on microorganisms.

A Classificatory Statistical Study of Mosul University Translation Department MA and PhD Theses (1986-2019) with Reference to Holmes’s Map of Translation Studies

Yasir Al-Badrany

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1896-1920
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168583

The present study aims to classify MA and PhD theses in translation, submitted to the Department of Translation[1] from 1986 to 2019, with reference to Holmes’s Map of Translation Studies (1972). The problem that the study tries to address is that the main focus of research efforts exerted in the translation studies conducted at Mosul University have general tendency towards pure theoretical translation studies. It is hypothesized that applied translation studies have not been paid similar attention on the part of translation researchers. Through providing statistical data that highlight the areas of translation studies, which have not been covered through the period mentioned above, the researcher has found that a big gap exists, as far as the applied branch of translation studies is concerned. Consequently, the study encourages and recommends researchers in translation, at the MA and PhD levels, to submit their translation studies within the applied branch in order to fill the aforementioned gap. Applying new strategies, by the Department of Translation, for approving the research topics of MA and PhD theses in the master and doctoral programs is also recommended.

A Classificatory Statistical Study of Mosul University Translation Department MA and PhD Theses (1986-2019) with Reference to Holmes’s Map of Translation Studies>

Yasir Al-Badrany

College Of Basic Education Researches Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1896-1920
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168584

The present study aims to classify MA and PhD theses in translation, submitted to the Department of Translation[1] from 1986 to 2019, with reference to Holmes’s Map of Translation Studies (1972). The problem that the study tries to address is that the main focus of research efforts exerted in the translation studies conducted at Mosul University have general tendency towards pure theoretical translation studies. It is hypothesized that applied translation studies have not been paid similar attention on the part of translation researchers. Through providing statistical data that highlight the areas of translation studies, which have not been covered through the period mentioned above, the researcher has found that a big gap exists, as far as the applied branch of translation studies is concerned. Consequently, the study encourages and recommends researchers in translation, at the MA and PhD levels, to submit their translation studies within the applied branch in order to fill the aforementioned gap. Applying new strategies, by the Department of Translation, for approving the research topics of MA and PhD theses in the master and doctoral programs is also recommended.