Main Subjects : History

Midhat pasha and his procedures for the proclamation of the Ottoman Constitution 1876

Hisham Saber AL-Rashedy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 531-548
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.175683

We note that the Ottoman Empire in the mid-nineteenth century had undergone a period of weakness , deterioration and maladministration ,both internally and externally , as a result of the problems and wars that were wrought upon the country , As a result of all these things , the idea of reform emerged in order to improve the conditions of Ottoman Empire and move it forward, Accordingly, a class of personalities emerged calling for reform, similar to the European system through taking and benefiting from this system , They were fully convinced that the Ottoman Empire would never rise except by introducing reforms and organizations in all the state facilities . Among the prominent personalities that emerged at this period was Medhat pasha, who greatly contributed to the implementation of reforms and worked hard to draft a special constitution for the Ottoman Empire , After negotiations and consultations in order to develop and implement the constitution , we note that this constitution did not last for a long time due to the emergence of personalities who opposed it , such as Sultan Abdul Hamid ll who believed that this constitution was not appropriate for the Ottoman State and was contrary to the lslamic caliphate and the Ottoman traditions , so he dismissed Midhat pasha from his position and exiled him Then he issued a decree in which he ordered the abolition of the constitution , and it has already been repealed , and not reinstated until after 1908 AD .

The activities and letters of Suleiman Al-Baroni in Iraq and Oman 1929-1939

Ali Hamza Abbas Hamza Al-Sofy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 549-577
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.175684

Suleiman Al-Baroni is considered one of the important personalities who played a prominent role in the history of Libya, And between 1918-1919, Suleiman Al-Baroni announced with some national leaders the founding of the Tripolitan Republic and the Basic Law. The Italians, abroad, first went to France, then returned to Tunisia,Then he went to Saudi Arabia and that was between 1923-1924 AD, then he went to the Sultanate of Oman in 1925-1928 AD, and in 1929 AD he went to Iraq and settled there until 1937 AD, and in 1938 AD he went to Muscat and stayed in until 1939 AD, and in that The era Baroni had multiple activities and messages on the issue of his country, These messages and activities contributed to providing the Libyan national movement with vigor, determination and determination to combat Italian colonialism through conferences, meetings, newspapers, magazines and cultural debates in the Arab Mashreq, specifically (Iraq and Oman), which we will discuss in the course of the research.

Plant and agricultural handicraft and in the in Eastreu Arabic until the End A The prophet Mission's era

Doaa Hussein Obaid; nidhal muayad maal Allah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 599-660
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174505

This research aims to identify the crafts and industries of agricultural crops in the Arabian Peninsula until the end of the era of the message, which had a clear and important impact on the lives of the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula, where these crafts and industries are different, including food and bread making, as well as the types of bread that existed at that time. As well as the uses of food dates, in addition to the manufacture of wines and the manufacture of oils, as well as dealing with the wooden industries (carpentry), as well as identifying the tools used by carpenters in this important craft, and getting acquainted with wood and its multiple uses in many important areas, whether in peace or war, as well as the miswak uses that it has become. A great affair since the advent of Islam, and the manufacture of ships, weapons and trigger, as well as dealing with chairs and household appliances to save the materials and toiletries that women used at that time, which were made of wood, playing tools, fibers and sticks, as well as getting to know the architecture (building) that was present in the regions. The Arabian Peninsula, where the method of construction differs, and the identification of industries, including textile and sewing, as well as plant foodstuffs It is used for tanning, uses of henna and gum, uses of vegetable dyes, the manufacture of perfumery (perfume) and fodder, and palm trees and their uses, as well as to identify the trade of manufactured materials in the Arabian Peninsula, including internal and external.

The customs and traditions of legacy and inheritance in the Arabs before Islam, which were approved by the Prophet,peace and blessings be upon him.

Naktal Yousif; محمد مظفر یحیى

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 239-254
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174490

        represents the social environment in any country, its vital depth and the vessel that expands its vocabulary and details, from which it takes The reasons are in communication, and he borrows the building blocks of his integrated statement, and from that issues of customs and traditions related to inheritance and legacy, as it is considered one of the old principles in those customs, which were marred by muddiness and denial, so it changed its course and muddied its description and pushed it out of the avenue, but this case did not completely tighten its grip on society. It was found from Arab cities and metropolises before Islam that gave rights to women, and the legacy was distributed in a manner consistent with justice, logic and objectivity in some way. For the young and the old, the woman, the man, the boy and the girl, which worked on the rule of logic and the distribution of the inheritance among the heirs as a whole and his share that corresponds to his tasks in life and his status from the deceased, so he combined justice, logic and comprehensiveness in It is a single framework, and preserves the social heritage that was prevalent before Islam.

Media Performance of American Zionist lobby and its Role in Strengthening Hatred Speech for Afmerican Public Opinion

haind fakhry al-moula; Noureddin Fellak Fellak

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 482-507
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174501

Modern media play a very important and dangerous role of affecting local and intermational public opinion changing their role from presenting and alalysing news to major player to deform destroy deeply rooted values, replace them with different values affects deeply on comceptions, beliefs, ideas, behawiour of individ was and how they see counter part observer of performance of American media enterpreses feels that they present a very fake and deformed image of Arabs, islam, theit main issue Palestine because of Zionist lobby and its influence over American media, specially after 9/11. Media exaggerated in degrading Arabs, call them worst names, mock their civilazztion, scientific contributions, injustice of their cause Now the image inside the mind of common American and Public American opinion of Arab and Muslim society is attached to terrorism, violence and radicality and on the other hand madezionist Hebrew state enjoy sophistication, democracy and needs support and opprove. Thus comes the proplem of this research.
Are the great roles of American media affirmed values of peace, forgiveness and co existence among people and states? Or because of strong influence of American Zionist lobby strengthened hatred speed of American public opinion through this negative, deformed and fake image of Arab and Islamic societies in general and their central cuses in partieular. Thus American Media was not an honest mediator to give true objective media information.

The high cost of 1878 and its economic implications for Mosul

luma abdul-aziz عبدالعزیز Alanzi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 814-830
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173430

During the domination of Ottomans (1516-1918), Mosul was overfull with waves of high prices, aridity and famine throughout various periods of time, which resulted in death of great number of its populations. Although Mosul is characterized with the most fertile agricultural soil supported by the Tigris which is the main source of water to the lands, but the flooding, restriction of water and the freezing of this river water could destroy vast agricultural lands, which in turn leads to the scarcity of agricultural products Mosul was famous with in addition to the waves of high prices in 1878 which were known by Mosul people as the "year of Lire" or "Barsameyya year" (Barseemah), which means in Kurdish (hungry) as this year was considered as one of the most cruel wave of famines and high prices the city witnessed that the price of wheat was one gold lire and this eventually brought a ruthless wave of high prices (famine) that led to the death of great number of people in Mosul and other governorates.

The economic aspects of the city of Balis in Islamic eras

Amer Abdalslam Alabasse; Rana Salah Taher

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 850-864
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170322

Economic life flourished in the city of Balis, like other ancient Euphrates cities on both banks of the Euphrates, especially at the beginning of the Umayyad era and through the Abbasid era. It lies at the crossroads of rivers and land in the middle of a rich agricultural region, which explains the economic, agricultural and commercial prosperity it apparently experienced during most of this period. The city of Balis also knew some of the traditional industries that existed in the Levant at that time, thanks to its location on the Euphrates, which made it a port and a center for commercial transportation. The research included an introduction and four axes. In the introduction, the researcher dealt with the site of the city of Pulse. In the first axis, we talked about agriculture, the second axis, in which the researcher dealt with trade and industry, the third axis, in which we dealt with the economic crises that the city of Pulse was exposed to, and the fourth axis, in which we talked about the karmic merchant Muhammad bin Muslim Balsi and his commercial role.

The Iranian Stance on the Syrian Crisis (2011 – 2016)

Nawzt dhahir Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 817-834
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.169655

The aim of this study is to explain the Iranian position on the Syrian crisis, which started on 15 March 2011 with a peaceful demonstration on the flow of the so-called 'Arab Spring.' But the Syrian regime's cruelty, which favoured a military response in handling the people's movement, has led to armed clashes between the regime and the Syrian opposition. Consequently, the Syrian territory was used as a backdrop by regional and foreign third parties to eliminate their struggles. As a result, a local crisis between the regime and the people turned the Syrian cause into a complicated international one. The current study has shed light on the Iranian perspective on this crisis and the goals of Iran behind its intrusion and the extent of its support. This research also discussed the geo-strategic significance of Syria in the Iranian political project and the implications of Iranian intrusion in the crisis. The importance of the research lies in the fact that it is distinguished by modernity and originality, which dealt with this contemporary period of the Syrian events. the time of the research starts from 2011, which is the period in which the Syrian protests began, and ends in 2016, during which time a comprehensive ceasefire was carried out throughout Syria, on December 30, 2016, between the Syrian regime and the opposition factions. As for the structure of the research, the research came in an introduction, four axes and a conclusion.

Military Organizations During the Era of Prophecy (Historical Study)

Khansaa Hassan Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 728-767
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168521

The research included three investigations, the first dealt with topic of the management of the military organization in terms of the meaning of the organization in language and terminology, and the importance of the organization in Islam. The second topic, which included the Department of Military Operations, spoke of the appointment of commanders and the traditions of combat and the role of women in peace and war. The third research dealt with the Department of Training and Armaments, weapons resources and weapons of the Islamic Army.
The research included three investigations, the first dealt with topic of the management of the military organization in terms of the meaning of the organization in language and terminology, and the importance of the organization in Islam. The second topic, which included the Department of Military Operations, spoke of the appointment of commanders and the traditions of combat and the role of women in peace and war. The third research dealt with the Department of Training and Armaments, weapons resources and weapons of the Islamic Army.

Algerian-French relations 1962-1978 AD A study of bilateral situations and relations

Amer Yousef Shamden

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 768-804
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168522

The foreign policy of France witnessed a new era when the Fifth Republic was established under the leadership of Charles de Gaulle, which wanted to eliminate colonialism, so the Evian Accords were signed to achieve political independence and restore national sovereignty to Algeria, so that Algerian-French cooperation witnessed sharp turns that recorded the cancellation of important articles of the agreement. The mystical and superficial, which led to a collision of French interests and privileges in Algeria, which caused a deterioration in relations in addition to the attacks that targeted Algerian immigrants and their property and did not stop at this point, if a bomb exploded in front of the entrance to the Consulate General of Algeria in Paris, which led to material damage to the building, which The issue of Western Sahara in which France sided with Morocco and smashed all attempts by Algeria to build the unity of the Maghreb, and France’s attempt since 1975 CE to revive relations with Algeria, as French President D'Estaing visited Algeria, but it remained governed by tension relations. And Algerian fear of French interference in internal affairs.

The dictatorial politics of Soviet President Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)

jojan jojan

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 871-893
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168526

One of the most important features of the twentieth century in the history of Europe is the emergence of military dictatorships and what these dictatorships played in the world of politics and occupied an important place in modern and contemporary European history, and the most prominent of these dictatorial regimes is the regime of the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, who embodied dictatorship in the Union of Soviet Republics Sprawling, and practiced absolute policy on all levels of political, economic and social. He was determining the internal and external policy, and developing plans and programs for that policy. It was known as the Five-Year Plan, after the dictator crushed all his rivals and opponents, and the people approached him as soon as they were suspicious of them. By ruling life as the sole heir to Lenin's empire.
Stalin implemented five-year plans for the advancement of the Soviet economy, according to the communist principle. However, those plans were far from communism, which called for people's ownership of economic facilities, as it was overwhelmed by dictatorship and the people were nothing but a tool in the hands of the state, like slaves. On the other fronts, it also killed the Soviet people, as it interfered in various areas of life, specifically religion and belief, as Christians, Muslims and Jews suffered most suffering and persecution, and that stemmed from the communist ideology that infects hostility to religion and is based on atheism.

John Foster Dulles and the Suez Crisis 1956

Adeeb صالح alluohaby

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 911-937
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168528

   July 1956 ,Wincsscd the cmerhencc of a Political crisis Known as the Suez Crisis which quickly turned into a military confrontation in late October 1956 between Egypt and Israel from one side while on the other side between Britain and France.
   The American administration  viaits State secretary (John Foster Dulles ) played an important role in the crisis in proportion to its interests, The research entitled (John Foster Dulles and the Suez Crisis1956 ) deals with the important role of Dulles in shaping the US foreign policy towards the Arab region.The Suez crisis represented a real test for Dulles s ability of balancing between the American benefits in the area and the plans of the allies of America (Britain,France and Israel)which did not have the same visions of America in dealing with the crisis.  

The establishment of the National Fascist Party and its arrival to power in Italy

jojan jojan

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 805-826
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168523

.The establishment of the Italian National Fascist Party by Mussolini in 1919 AD is the first fascist party that arose in Europe that witnessed the emergence of fascist movements and parties in the period between the two world wars, and what helped this was the growth of Italian nationalism and the tragedies that the First World War resulted in Italy on Although it was one of the victorious countries in the war, since the reconciliation countries marginalized their share of compensation at the peace conference in 1919. Italy's joining the First World War was on the side of the Allies, hoping that its participation would bring it good, because of the sacrifices it made and the burden on its treasury, which was reflected in the political situation and led to its deterioration. Thus the political and economic deterioration reflected on the social situation and generated great discontent and attraction The masses to the fascist party, which is increasing day by day until it reached a force that would impose itself, and this is what Mussolini did by marching to Rome in 1922 and forcing the government to form the new government with his head .

العدوان الثلاثی على مصر واثره على العلاقات الاردنیة-السعودیة

Abdulrhman waleed salih Alqassar

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 894-910
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168527

The triple aggression against Egypt came for many reasons, including the revolution of Egypt in 1952, as well as the policy of Egypt and Abdel Nasser towards the Non-Aligned Movement and its participation in the Bandung conference in 1955, the high dam project is one of the most important reasons that led the major countries Britain and France (Israel) to carry out aggression.
Britain was a strong supporter of the high dam project, but that support later faded and was replaced by Soviet support, which provoked the three major powers and prompted them to embark on aggression against Egypt.
Britain began its attack on Egypt and then France and later (Israel), the Arab countries did not stand in the face of aggression, as Jordan and Saudi Arabia began to open centers to volunteer in order to send military forces to repel the aggression from Egypt, as well as allow Saudi Arabia forces to pass through Jordanian territory, which strengthened relations between the two countries.
Jordan and Saudi Arabia have united their positions during and after the aggression, as the two countries severed diplomatic relations with enemy countries as well as raised donations from the people to support Egypt.

The emergence of the modern Iraqi state in foreign sources(philip Willard Ireland) as a model

Nadia Massoud sharef Aljirah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 851-870
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168525

The researcher discussed in his book the importance of Iraq to Britain, as it is one of the important roads leading to India (the jewel of the British crown), so when the First World War broke out, Britain occupied Iraq, wanting to turn it into an Indian province, but in the wake of the revolution of twenty years in Iraq. 1920, Britain changed its policy towards Iraq by establishing an autonomy that would ensure the preservation of British interests. An interim government was formed headed by Abdul Rahman al-Naqib, assisted by a number of supervisors and some patriots and with the advice of British advisors. This government was the beginning of the foundations of national rule through the British rule concealed by the mask of the Iraqi Arab front, and Britain wanted to place a king over Iraq to rule the new permanent Iraqi government, and despite the multiplicity of candidates from Iraqis and others, Britain was supportive of one of Sharif Hussein’s sons Especially King Faisal.
King Faisal I assumed the throne of Iraq in 1921, and the new aspect of Iraqi-British relations begins, in addition to his policy towards the opposition in the country until his efforts were successful after Iraq entered the League of Nations in 1932, and during this period Iraq

Civil War Al maghuleyah 664_701 H/ 1266_1302 M Analytical Study

raghag abdulkareem aljnajaar

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 980-1002
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168530

his study sheds light on the most terrible Magholian civil wars, which were the theater of Turkestan, Transoxania, and China, which lasted for nearly three and a half decades, and the reasons for which are due to the desire of the parties to lead and dominate the areas of influence of the Maghol Empire, Arik Buka, who had declared himself a traitor to the Mongols, was preoccupied with this war between Kublai and Kaidu khan in Western Turkestan, and Kaido was one of the fiercest opponents of Kublai declaration of himself as emperor of the Maghols in the year 658 AH / 1260 AD, and this opposition led the two parties to declare war between them and intensified after Kublai realized that Kaidu ambition did not stop. At the borders of preserving its properties in the countries of Western Turkestan, but was extended to impose its hegemony over the countries of Transoxiana and Khorasan, and its goals from that were to control the trade of the Silk Road that was passing through these countries, This is what actually happened when Kaidu was able to impose his will on these countries,

Women in the technical Term of Mustafa Kemal and Reza Shah

Zaid Mahmoud Hilal Anaz; Nusseibeh Abdulaziz Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 396-411
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167219

The issue of women is one of the issues that writers, thinkers, and reformers have been interested in for many years, because women play a great role in many social, educational and political issues of concern to society in general, for they are the mothers, wives , daughters and sisters, and therefore the divine laws, especially the Islamic religion, recommended the respect the rights and duties  her respect for her and her rights and duties, and from this standpoint our study on women came about in the reforms of Mustafa Kemal and Reza Shah during an important stage that the two countries witnessed, by clarifying their social policy and their attempt to change the reality of Turkish and Iranian women to stop a general policy that the two pursued to Westernize the reality of the two societies, especially with regard to the reality of women From the veil and the indignant reaction it provoked and the change of marriage and divorce laws, as well as education and the related establishment of women's centers and institutions.

The Ruling Regimes in Sudan (1956 - 1989 A.D.)

Ahmed Irhayyil Abbass Azziw; Thakir Muhil-Deen Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 455-476
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167223

This research deals with the study of the ruling regimes in Sudan since its independence (1956 – 1989 A.D.). This study also sheds light on the most important political developments  during this period of time and participated in changing the circumstances in Sudan interiorly and exteriorly. To add, it illustrates the scope of importance of these events which assisted in changing the regime during this period of time.
The study aims at highlighting the circumstances that led to changing the ruling regimes successively during this period, in addition to establishing political parties which were the reason behind changing the regime via their disputes for six times during thirty three years. It is to be noted the this period of time witnessed only ten years of democratic rule  in Sudan. The study is made up of an introduction and six sections in which in information has been provided  about the geographical location of Sudan in addition to its successive ruling regimes. The research has been ended by remarkable notes concluded by this study

Sultan Ghiath Al- Deen tulghliq in the Estabikshment of Al-Taghlqiah State

Liqaa Khalil Al Ghazali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 359-375
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167217

The research seeks to shed light on the role of Sultan Ghayath Al-Din Taghloq in the establishment of the Taghqiya State (720-725 AH / 1321-1325 AD), and he is one of the great Muslim sultans who ruled the Indian subcontinent. He brought back to Islam its dignity  independence, and formed a regular army at the western borders in order to secure his country from  out dangers, as well as his role in providing means of prosperity for his people.
The research is based on a number of sources and references related to the history of Islamic India, as well as the introduction and conclusion.

Reasons and Factors behind the Outbreak of Insurrection in Darfur in (2003 A.D.)

Ahmed Irhayyil Abbass; Thakir Muhil-Deen Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 376-395
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167218

This research tackles the main reasons and factors behind the insurrection in Darfur since the very beginning of the third millennium, In this study, we shed light on analyzing all the events passed by the region during accumulative period of time for about fifty years in which procedures have been developed. The importance of the study is due to the fact that it can be regarded as a new one dealing with the reasons of insurrection in an analytical detailed way. To add, it has  discussed the state of things of this region from the very beginning and till the outbreak of insurrection in February, 2003, The study is made up of an introduction and three sections. The first section involves the introducing information about Darfur like its geographical location and its various ethnicities. However, the second section comprises an analytical study of the interior reasons behind insurrection. Finally, the third section is about the exterior reasons participating in the outbreak of insurrection in Darfur. The research has been ended by the most important notes concluded in the study.

Attempts by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and Reza Shah to Curtail the Religious Establishment in Turkey and Iran

Zaid Mahmoud Hilal Anaz; Nusseibeh Abdullah Abdulaziz

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 412-432
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167221

Studies on social and political history are of clear importance in human disciplines, especially since the spotlight has not been fully shed on them in our academic studies, with the importance of those aspects in the history of Turkey and Iran in particular and the history of other countries in general. The study of social and political aspects formed a picture of an independent Turkey and Iran  during a sensitive stage in the history of the two countries, and due to their importance, Mustafa Kemal and Reza Shah realized the importance of these aspects, which made them pay great attention to them to reform them. a legislations to limit the influence of this institution.

Legal Implication of Contracts Received on Buildings under Construction - Comparative Study-

Mohammed Sadeeq Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 523-566
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167226

The importance of the research appears through the absence of legal regulation for it in Iraq at a time when it was covered by the legislation of other countries, and for the spread of these sales, we chose this topic to clarify the concept of this contract, its legal adaptation, its legality, and the obligations it imposes on its parties. It turns out that it is an independent contract of a special nature that provides protection for the buyer by providing him with adequate guarantees on the one hand and serves the interest of the seller on the other side, who may not be able to fully finance his project from his own funds, so he resorted through this technology to offer these projects for sale before completion and thus benefit from their price To start building or completing it. It has also been shown that the formalism in this contract is of a special nature, as the ownership is transferred to the buyer under construction in this capacity when the contract is initially registered and he has the right to dispose of the property all kinds of actions, provided that the same formality is met for the validity of these actions.

The Stance of Beirut Representatives Specially the Arab Affairs 1943-1958

Wisam Altaf Abdul Hamid; Jasim Mohammed Khudair

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 433-454
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167222

The Arab issues were the focus of attention of  Beirut’s deputies from a regional impact on the Arab countries, especially the Palestinian issue and the Egyptian issue, as they devoted their efforts from 1943 to 1958 to follow up on Arab issues and put pressure on the Lebanese government as a legislative authority to demand the establishment of a national home for the Jews in Palestine, Emphasizing the right of the Palestinian people to their land, not to mention their standing in the face of the challenges facing the Arab region, foremost of which is the Egyptian issue represented by the Suez Crisis and the tripartite aggression against Egypt, as, and the importance of research lies in the fact that the Arab region has witnessed changes that have affected the Arab region, including Lebanon, and from this point of view. The focus was on Beirut MPs and shed light on their discussions in the Lebanese Parliament regarding the Palestinian and Egyptian issues.

Lebanon and Declaration of the United Arabia Republic in 1958 A Study in popular and official positions

Jassim Mohammed almrbd

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 477-498
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167224

تکمن أهمیة البحث فی دراسة تجربة الجمهوریة العربیة المتحدة بین مصر وسوریا 1958 وموقف لبنان الشعبی والرسمی منها لا سیما وأنها أول تجربة وحدویة معاصرة جاءت استجابة للمطلب الجماهیری العربی الذین کان یرى فی تحقیق هذه الوحدة للتخلص من واقع التخلف والبؤس الذی یعانی منه الشعب العربی وکذلک التخلص من التبعیة الاستعماریة.
قسم البحث على أربعة محاور ، خصص المحور الأول لمقدمات قیام الجمهوریة العربیة المتحدة والتی تمثلت بعقد عدد من الاتفاقیات العسکریة والتجاریة والاقتصادیة بین مصر وسوریا فی المدة ما بین عامی 1955 ـــ 1957 ، اما المحور الثانی فقد تناول متابعة مفاوضات الوحدة بین مصر وسوریا والتی بدأت بین الطرفین فی المدة ما بین 11 ـــ 27 کانون الثانی / ینایر 1958 والتی تم فیها مناقشة الخطوط العریضة لدولة الوحدة ، بینما تناول المحور الثالث إعلان قیام الوحدة فی الأول من شباط / فبرایر 1958 والتی سمیت بـ (الجمهوریة العربیة المتحدة) ، أما المحور الرابع فقد بحث فی موقف لبنان الشعبی والرسمی من قیام الوحدة ، إذ تناول أولاً الموقف الشعبی المؤید لمشروع الوحدة والذی تمثل بالأحزاب السیاسیة وکذلک الموقف الجماهیری الذی تجسد بإقامة الاحتفالات والمهرجانات فی مختلف انحاء لبنان ابتهاجاً بالوحدة ، وکذلک إرسال الوفود الشعبیة التی مثلت جمیع المدن اللبنانیة إلى سوریا للتعبیر عن تأییدها للوحدة ، کما شمل المحور تناول الموقف الرسمی اللبنانی من قیام الوحدة والذی تناول موقف رئاسة الجمهوریة والحکومة اللبنانیة ومجلس النواب اللبنانی.

Economical Change in Libya1969-1977

nihaya Salih

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 499-522
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167225

The end of 50s and the beginning of 60s are regarded  as a changing point in economic and social aspects in Libya . Its economy turned from still into rapidly developed economy due to discovery and export of oil in 1961 , the dominance of oil sector over economy was greatl . The Libyan economy witnessed rapid growth during the 70s of the last century . Libya became one of the richest states specially after the coup made by a group of Libyan officers on 1st of September 1969 against monarchy and declaring republic and liberating the Libyan economy from  foreign dependency and transforming it into a productive national economy  . Therefore, the property of the Italians who colonized Libya throughout the previous six decades of the twentieth century was nationalized, and this was a major  step in the field of liberalizing the Libyan economy, as well as the nationalization of oil, banking and agricultural companies.
The political developments in Libya During Republic Era 1969-   1977 were accompanied by major developments in political, economic and social fields; therefor, the study comes by extrapolating and analyzing these developments and its implications on the economic aspects, especially in the agricultural, industrial and trade sectors.

Mercenaries in international humanitarian law

Hala A Mohammed AL Doory

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 569-596
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165996

The last decade of the last century witnessed an increase in the number of international armed conflicts, whether international or not, and some of the parties to the conflict tended to use a large number of mercenaries to carry out various tasks with the opponent, and some of the parties to the conflict had used “security companies” to carry out their sabotage actions "The employees of security companies, mercenaries and spies are individuals who are covered by the protection

Britain's policy towards the Ottoman Empire since the assumption of the British Ambassador Louis Mellit until the entry into the First World War

Emad Hamad Saleh Abdul Halim Jubouri

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 597-621
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165997

          The prevailing view of many historians and researchers in Ottoman affairs were that the British government is pushing the Ottoman state to join the center countries, led by Germany, but this view is problematic, especially since Britain has already achieved its preference in the years before the First World War and its emphasis on her interested in Arabian Gulf , Mesopotamia, and no Exception Egypt, which has not wished to raise its subject since the federalists took power in the Ottoman Empire, and to enter into negotiations with the British side in order to ensure its interests in the Middle East. In 1913-1914, which resulted in a series of agreements in favor of the British government, which became the view that it is not necessary to engage with the Ottoman State in armed conflict.
   The research deals with diplomacy taken by Britain through the Foreign Office and its embassy in Astana and pursued two levels of policy, the first: to keep the Ottoman Empire on the neutrality. The second to delay the entry of the Ottoman Empire as much as possible.

ملامح وتوجهات السیاسة الخارجیة العُمانیة فی سبعینیات القرن العشرین

Ali Hamza Abbas Hamza Al-Sofy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 690-717
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165721

The research aims to shed light on the features and directions of Omani foreign policy in the 1970s, especially after 1970, when Sultan Qaboos bin Saeed assumed the rule of the Sultanate, and with him the modern Omani renaissance started with various areas of Omani life, Omani foreign policy adopted features and trends, linked to the site The geostrategic, cultural and historical heritage, and the preservation of its Arab and Islamic identity. Everyone in the Sultanate was eager for change, renewal and modernization, which made modernity and contemporary stand together next to Iraq and origin, forming a future vision for the modern and modern Sultanate of Oman. .
The study examined the start of Omani diplomacy after 1970, and the mechanism of joint work between the Sultan, the people, and the government to end the state of isolation and closure of the Sultanate before 1970, then proceeding to build bridges of openness and communication with the outside world, by adopting a policy of moderation, good neighborhood, non-interference in internal affairs, and respect for laws and customs International, and support Gulf, Arab, Islamic, regional and international cooperation

The legal status of irregular combatants during the period of armed conflict

Hala A Mohammed AL Doory

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 665-689
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165999

That the discussion of the "legal status" of combatants, non-regimes in armed conflict is not "desirable" according to the "rules of international law" unless they became after the military "campaign" led by the United States in "Afghanistan" the theme of the sea and "international legal" and writers and researchers in this subject without regard to the nature of the conflict is international or" non-international in character ".
Targets "our research" to clarify the concept of armed conflict and those who are" fighters not the two systems" and the extent of the applicability of the rules of international humanitarian law to those groups, particularly the third" Geneva "Convention of 1949.

Ornamental Materials Industry in Ancient Iraq

Suheila Majeed Ahmed Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 622-638
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165998

The manufacture of ornamental materials for ancient Iraqis is one of the oldest industries of the human being, as it is known that man always searches for materials that adorn them and highlight the beautiful and decent qualities through them, especially women who are interested in appearing beautiful.
It is known that ornamental materials are luxury materials for humans and express beauty, both for the face or the smell of the body and place, so we will focus on ornamental materials and not ornamental tools and the topic of our research will be the manufacture of ornamental materials, which are represented by the face powder, eyeliner and lipstick, and then we will talk about perfumes after that as complementary materials for decoration and gives the person psychological comfort and get rid of bad smells, especially in the summer.
The research relied on its scientific material on what was discovered in ancient graves of materials indicating that they were used in cosmetics, including some holdings in this regard made of gold, silver, and ivory, as was relying on many texts that referred to cosmetics whether they were used to beautify The face and the most important part of it are the eyes, eyebrows or aromatherapy substances mentioned in these texts, and all of these combined, whether ornamental materials or perfumes give an aesthetic appearance to the person that increases its splendor of its attractiveness and that every person's demand is old and new.

Peaceful Coexistence between Muslims and the Chinese ( The 3rd Century – 8th Century A.H. / 9rd Century – 14th Century AC.)

Sajid Abid Mohammed Mohammed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 512-528
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165993

Mankind knew peaceful coexistence from time immorial although it was not used as a term in the old periods and they have simiarlities that brought them together. This does not happen if there is no mutual coexistence.Today, the issue of coexistence is one of the most important issues that preoccupy the minds of Muslim and western thinkers and specialists. Muslims and non-Muslims have felt the importance of it.  There are frequent calls which ask for good coexistence. Therefore, the topic of peaceful coexistence between Muslims and the Chinese focuses on the necessity of human coexistence. This is required of human society to achieve balance and to strive any difference. Muslims have behaved in a civilized manner,  which affected many Chinese people and led them to embrace Islam. In fact Muslims and the Chinese presented a good example of peaceful coexistence and understanding the other at that time. The research comprises an introduction and four sections. The first section examines the concept of coexistence linguistically and terminologically. The second section tackles the peaceful political coexistence. The peaceful economic coexistence is given an account in the third section. Th research ends  with the peaceful social coexistence  in addition to a conclusion that mentions the findings of the research.

التحولات الاقتصادیة فی لیبیا 1951-1969

nihaya Mohammed Saleh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 639-664
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165723

شهدت لیبیا منذ أوائل القرن الماضی تطورات سیاسیة واقتصادیة واجتماعیة، فقد کانت خاضعة لحکم الدولة العثمانیة حتى احتلالها من قبل إیطالیا عام 1911، ثم خضعت لیبیا لحکم الادارتین البریطانیة والفرنسیة منذ عام 1943، وبموجب قرار الامم المتحدة حصلت على استقلالها عام 1951، واعلن قیام المملکة اللیبیة المتحدة برئاسة محمد إدریس السنوسی، ومن ثم قیام مجموعة من الضباط بقیادة معمر القذافی بانقلابه عام 1969 وانهاء النظام الملکی فی لیبیا وإعلان النظام الجمهوری. وقد طرأت على الحیاة السیاسیة والاقتصادیة والاجتماعیة تغییرات کثیرة، وقد رکزت الدراسة على ابراز الجانب الاقتصادی والاجتماعی فی لیبیا خلال العهد الملکی.
الهدف من البحث هو استقراء الأوضاع الاقتصادیة فی لیبیا للمدة 1951-1969 التی جرى فیها تطورات على هذین المجالین والتی توضحت اغلبها بالأرقام لتعطی؛ توضیحات دقیقة عن کل ما یتعلق بالجانب الاقتصادی، ثم جاء التطور الابرز عند اکتشاف النفط عام 1958. ومن خلال بحثی ودراستی للموضوع یلاحظ القارئ أن هناک عدداً من الجوانب لم تشبع بحثا ودراسة؛ بسبب صعوبة الحصول على وثائق ومعلومات واحصائیات دقیقة تتعلق بتلک الجوانب، مما أدى إلى عدم تغطیتها تغطیة کافیة.

International protection of journalists during the period of armed conflict

Hala A Mohammed AL Doory

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 529-552
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.165994

That the human being is the essence of life and the basis for survival of his feeling of peace and security and ensuring his freedoms and respect for his dignity at all times. Therefore, international agreements came to ensure the public and private protection of the person against any aggression that might befall him.
Despite the high hopes raised by the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, they were not at the required level, as the number of victims is increasing due to the increase in international armed operations, whether or not of an international nature; and that all legal texts of the international agreements remained a dead letter that did not come into practice. .
The efforts made by the international community to develop and codify the rules and provisions that regulate armed conflicts, through international agreements, covenants and declarations, are incomplete due to the lack of deterrent penal mechanisms for anyone who violates them.
Despite the existence of international agreements that protect some special groups, such as journalists,
the provisions of these articles do not provide full protection for this category, just as states do not adhere to
international agreements, but rather rely on the balance of power without regard to the rules and provisions of international
humanitarian law.