Main Subjects : linguistics


A study of Assertives in Arabic Supervisor – Student Interaction

Ashraf Abdulwahid Dhannoon Abdulwahid Taha; Kamal Hazim Hussein Hazim ALmola

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 915-939
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.175704

Relatively, little is known about assertive speech acts the supervisors employ to communicate with their research students. In addition, it is unknown whether assertives can help determine the supervisors' mode of interaction across the stages of the supervisory process and also the dominant mode throughout the entire process. The present study seeks to investigate the supervisors’ use of assertives while presenting their oral feedback. The study traces the supervisors’ use of asserives throughout the stages of writing the thesis. Also, it aims at finding if they can be used to identify the mode of interaction at each stage and the dominant one employed by the supervisors throughout the entire process. The study adopts an eclectic model that combines two parts. The first part is based mainly on Searle's (1979) assertives. The second part comprises Heron's (1976) six-category intervention analysis. The data has been approached qualitatively; in addition, some instruments from the quantitative method are used, such as percentages, figures, and some mathematical statistics, to explore the correlation between the assertives understudy and the supervisory mode of interaction. The data analysis concludes that assertive speech acts can be used to determine the supervisors’ mode of interaction throughout the various stages of the supervisory process and identify the dominant mode of interaction across the entire supervisory process. Besides, the findings show that the authoritative mode is the dominant mode of interaction employed by the supervisors throughout the various stages of the supervisory process.

A Semantic Analysis of Hyponymy in Wilde's The Nightingale and the Rose

Rafat Dhiyaa Al-Obaidy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 892-914
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.175703

This study aims at investigating hyponymy and its semantic category in Wilde's The Nightingale and the Rose. It also aims to discover and highlight the most dominant as well as the least category kinds in this short story. In the study under investigation, it has been found 113 hyponyms and they have been divided into 27 categories namely; body and its parts, plant, colour, occupation, appearance, time, flowers, animal, five senses, sex-male, sex-female, gemstone, family, voice, parts of the house, garden, distance, fruit, age, instruments, liquids, furniture, size, sleep, building, transportation and insect, respectively. The findings of the research have found that the most dominant type is body and its parts which occurred 13 times, while the least type was insects, which occurred only once in the data under investigation. The findings of the study can assist English teachers and students learn and apply new vocabulary concepts, allowing them to better understand the language of literary literature. .

Discourse Analysis of TV News Headlines

Abeer Khalaf Hussein

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 2, Pages 1029-1057
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.174573

This study investigates features of TV news headlines. Discourse analysis is used as a method for studying news headlines in question. The model adopted is an eclectic one. The approaches of Olowe (1993), Van Dijk (2000), Van Dijk (2013) on text analysis were utilized to examine the data. The analysis involves three levels of analysis: Grammatical, linguistic and ideological. The study aims to explore whether the linguistic features of TV headlines among different news channels vary according to the channel orientation or not. It also seeks to highlight the grammatical structure of news headlines and examine the various TV headlines' differences with their respective ideologies. It is hypothesized that through the sample channels have different orientations, they use the same structures and techniques in their headlines.
Moreover, due to this difference, it is hypothesized that there is a difference in the ideologies. Consequently, the headlines will have sometimes hidden meanings to be conveyed indirectly to their readers. In addition, the study sheds light on discourse markers used in news headlines. Data analysis shows that most headlines carry the same linguistic and grammatical features with little focus. Diversity in orientation has its obvious effect in some channels. A small number of discourse markers is used in news headlines. The researcher has come up with findings that validate the set hypotheses.

Investigating Intertextual Elements in Naguib Mahfouz’s Novel “Khan al-Khalili” (1946)‎

Abdulkareem Zaidan Abed; Ziyad Fadhil Himood

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1051-1069
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173443

‎ Intertextuality can generally be defined as ‎the effect and presence of previous texts in the ‎structure of the ‎present one; it actually shows the internal relationships of a literary text with all ‎other related texts. There is a consensus that no texts are a complete creation of their authors; ‎rather, they are constructed through a process that links the textual elements of the related texts ‎with the writers’ creativity. In literary genres, intertextuality is employed to play a crucial role. ‎Thus, the writers, un‏/‏deliberately, appeal to intertextual elements, elaborate them in their artistic ‎career and creativity to produce the intended text. The study addresses the problem that some ‎readers' unawareness of intertextuality results in misunderstanding and misinterpreting a text ‎filled with intertextual elements. The study aims at investigating the intertextual elements in ‎Mahfouz’s novel Khan al-Kahlili (1946). The hypothesis this study puts forward is that a reader ‎who is well-acquainted with the functions of an intertextual elements is more capable of ‎comprehending and interpreting intertextual texts. As for the analysis of data, the study has ‎adapted Genette's model of intertextuality ( 1997), namely, explicit and implicit intertextuality. It ‎is found that intertextuality is an important and useful device for both the text producers and ‎readers. It is also detected that the phenomenon of intertextuality is utilized by writers of literary ‎genres for various purposes such as: communicative, aesthetic, stylistic and rhetorical purposes. ‎

The Importance of Cultural Context in Analyzing the Discourse of Seller-Buyer Interaction

Khalida Suood suood Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1596-1615
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.169688

Abstract
The study represents everyday life struggle in which language is considered as a problem-solving process. The current study is an attempt to investigate Mosuli cultural and Islamic traditions as a crucial factor for explaining linguistic formulas used by maneuvers in seller-buyer interaction. It also investigates the socio-linguistic variables and their effect on sequential organization, the types and more frequent acts in seller- buyer interaction and to see what are the specific choices of speech, style and the most frequent acts.
It is found that the cultural context is an effective factor in understanding and analyzing the linguistic utterances as acts which represents strategies for pricing and purchasing and that speech acts reflect the social and cultural traditions related to language. Social and Islamic traditions as generosity and hospitality are deeply rooted in the Mosuli society. Moreover, sellers and buyers avoid in most cases threatening the negative face to reach their goal of persuasion.
Adopting Sinclair-Coulthard's model(1975), the study has come up with a set of conclusions among which : understanding the cultural context is crucial for successful performance of selling buying strategies, speech acts and addressing forms help in accomplishing the negotiation process; also speech acts as strategies are heavily used to achieve the goal of interlocutors in Mosuli society.

Functions of Intertextuality in Some Extracts of Modern Arabic Novels.‎

Abdulkareem Zaidan Abed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1448-1505
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.169683

Abstract
‎ Intertextuality can basically be defined as the influence and existence of previous texts or ‎speeches in the construction of present one. The current study tackles the problem that ‎determining the functions of the intertextual elements helps in better understanding and ‎interpreting of literary texts. Thus, not well-equipped readers of intertextuality and its functions ‎get problems in interpreting and understanding some texts filled of such functions. The present ‎study aims to: firstly, investigate the intertextual types in some Mahfouz’s novel, namely,‎‏"‏Khan ‎al-Kahlili‏"‏‎ (1946), "al-Midaq Alley" (1947) and "Awlad Haratina" (1959), secondly, look at ‎the functions of intertextuality in the three novels under focus. The hypotheses the present study ‎puts forward are as follows: firstly, realizing functions of intertextuality is a crucial element ‎contributes for better understanding different layers of a literary text. Secondly, intertextuality ‎enhances and enriches the aesthetic structure of literary texts. As for the analysis of data, the ‎study has adapted Ahmed’s model (2010). Accordingly, intertextuality is divided into three ‎main types, namely, religious intertextuality, literary intertextuality and other types of ‎intertextuality. It is found that intertextuality is utilized by writers for: communicative, rhetorical ‎and aesthetic functions. It is also discovered that intertextuality is a useful strategy employed by ‎text producers.‎

Hymes and Sacks Models in Discourse Analysis of Short Story

saffana Ayed Al-kattabee

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1041-1056
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167266

ABSTRACT
Discourse analysis is considered as an instrument in analyzing elements which influence on our understanding of a particular text. Thus, discourse analysis is a highly coherent model in analyzing any spoken, like conversation, or written, like short story text.
The aim of this study is to analyze the discourse analysis of a short story, to show how the discourse is initiated, developed and terminated. How the characters participate, interact and what are the relationships among them, how those characters are introduced in the story; how they interrupt, ask questions, and how turns are distributed. The study also aims at counting the number of topics and how they are interrelated. To know whether the sequence of events is logical or not. In order to achieve these aims, the study adopts the discourse analysis of a written text of a short story namely, The Man of the House, by analyzing and describing the different strategies like initiating, developing, and terminating. In this study, the model of discourse analysis is eclectic, comprising of three models; Hymes model (1972) who suggests the category of "speech event", and Sacks model (1968) which proposes interaction analysis based on four categories "conversation", "topic", "sequence", and "turn".

Investigating the Impact of Using Incidental Vocabulary Learning on Enhancing EFL Learners’ Motivation at University Level

Shaimaa Nuaimee; Shoaib Al-Fahady

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1057-1074
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167271

The current research aims to investigate the effect of incidental learning strategy on EFL university students’ motivation to learn English based on the incidental learning strategy. In the light of this aim, the researcher has set one null hypothesis to be tested.
The researcher adopted the one-group experimental design. Accordingly, a sample of 40 students has been intentionally chosen from among the second year students at the Dept. of English/ College of Basic Education/ University of Mosul for the academic year 2019/ 2020 after applying an achievement test on the population of the research where the sample were chosen from among the students at the lowest level in the achievement test.
The instrument has been prepared by the researcher herself to collect the data based on the dependent variable namely motivation. A questionnaire on students’ motivation was constructed. The validity and reliability of the instrument was verified and tested. It was implemented before the experiment and after applying it to test where a difference in the level of motivation to learn English is. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using different statistical means.
The findings of this research show that the incidental learning is an effective strategy in motivating students to learn English as a foreign language.

A Pragmatic Study of Congratulation Responses in Iraqi Arabic

Arwa Luay Luay Abdulkhaleq .Asst. Lect

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1121-1138
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167270

The present study is a pragmatic study of congratulation responses in Iraqi Arabic. It aims at finding out the main and sub- responses strategies in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses, figuring out the more frequent types of positive politeness strategies used in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses and investigating the influence of gender in expressing the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses concerning the questions above. The researcher hypothesizes that there are different responses strategies used in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses. In the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses, there are positive politeness strategies more frequently used than others, and the congratulation responder's gender affects his / her Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses. By using a discourse completion test(DCT), the researcher verifies these hypotheses to be conducted on 60 students(males/females) at Mosul University/ College of Basic Education/Department of English as a sample for the research. The test consists of ten happy situations, and the participants have to imagine the situations that his/her friend is congratulating him/her and to write their responses in Arabic. Finally, the data have to be analyzed in terms of the taxonomy proposed by Elwood (2004) and then by the positive politeness strategies stated by Brown and Levinson (1987). Based on the results of the current study, it has been found that there are different responses strategies used in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses, there are positive politeness strategies more frequently used than others, and finally, males and females employ somewhat similar congratulation responses strategies but with varying frequencies and realizations.

The Effect of Circumstances of Death and Funeral Ceremony on Condolence in English and Arab Societies

Abbas Alobaidi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1089-1102
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167268

The present study is an investigation into circumstances of death and funeral ceremony and their effect on condolence expressions in English and Arab societies .the problem of the study stems from the fact that both circumstances of death and funeral ceremony differ in both societies, and this has its bearing on condolence expressions in English and Arabic .It aims at showing whether the circumstances of death affect the grief and condolence expressions ,and seeing whether funeral ceremonies differ from one society to another according to traditions and religion. It is found here that in English society, condolence expressions are often non-verbal expressions, whereas in Arab society, condolence expressions are usually verbal expressions, and that the death circumstances in English society do not affect condolence expressions ,whereas in Arab society they play a significant role in choosing the condolence expressions, in addition to having an effect on the number of condolers.