Main Subjects : English


Investigating Intertextual Elements in Naguib Mahfouz’s Novel “Khan al-Khalili” (1946)‎

Abdulkareem Zaidan Abed; Ziyad Fadhil Himood

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1051-1069
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173443

‎ Intertextuality can generally be defined as ‎the effect and presence of previous texts in the ‎structure of the ‎present one; it actually shows the internal relationships of a literary text with all ‎other related texts. There is a consensus that no texts are a complete creation of their authors; ‎rather, they are constructed through a process that links the textual elements of the related texts ‎with the writers’ creativity. In literary genres, intertextuality is employed to play a crucial role. ‎Thus, the writers, un‏/‏deliberately, appeal to intertextual elements, elaborate them in their artistic ‎career and creativity to produce the intended text. The study addresses the problem that some ‎readers' unawareness of intertextuality results in misunderstanding and misinterpreting a text ‎filled with intertextual elements. The study aims at investigating the intertextual elements in ‎Mahfouz’s novel Khan al-Kahlili (1946). The hypothesis this study puts forward is that a reader ‎who is well-acquainted with the functions of an intertextual elements is more capable of ‎comprehending and interpreting intertextual texts. As for the analysis of data, the study has ‎adapted Genette's model of intertextuality ( 1997), namely, explicit and implicit intertextuality. It ‎is found that intertextuality is an important and useful device for both the text producers and ‎readers. It is also detected that the phenomenon of intertextuality is utilized by writers of literary ‎genres for various purposes such as: communicative, aesthetic, stylistic and rhetorical purposes. ‎

Gender Differences in the Use of Elaboration Strategy in FL Reading Comprehension

Ansam Ali Alhalawachy

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 1070-1087
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.173444

This research aims at investigating the role played by ‘Elaboration’, being an input modification strategy, in enhancing EFL reading comprehension. It further aims at identifying the effect of gender, if any, on using this strategy by finding a suitable answer to the question whether male or female students will get more benefit in enhancing the comprehension of lexical items at the sentential level. Based on these aims, the following research questions are addressed: 1- Is there any relation between the use of elaboration strategy and improving EFL university students’ reading comprehension? 2- Is there any relation between students’ gender and the use of elaboration strategy as far as improving reading comprehension is concerned? To answer these questions, a sample of 80 EFL students (40 males and 40 females) was given a self-report test, prepared by the researcher, and initially validated through distribution to a panel of juries and then piloted to a number of EFL university students, to state their responses on the basis of a scale ranging from ‘ nothing’ to ‘everything’. The results show that elaboration strategy is a good strategy for enhancing EFL students achievement in reading comprehension. There are also significant differences observed in the use of elaboration strategy in terms of students gender as better achievement in reading comprehension is noticed on the part of female students using the elaboration strategy.

Investigating Osloob al- Hakeem (Equivocation) with Reference to Arabic -English Translation

Ziyad Fadhil Rasheed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1176-1200
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170341

Abstract
“Osloob al-Hakeem” which means Arabic equivocation, or in English “Equivocation”, is an Arabic term referring to a kind of eloquent style of speech or writing. It is a frequently used style in the literature of Arabic whereas in English we have similar terms namely , equivocation and double speak. It has many rhetorical goals . The study attempts to identify this style, its types and objectives, with reference to the possibility of translating it into English. Further, it aims at finding the difference between this style and its equivalent in English. The study has showed that Arabic equivocation has eight objectives and has a special meaning that depends on changing the course of the dialogue to what suits the addressee and the speaker. It is found that Arabic equivocation differs from English equivocation in that the usage of Arabic equivocation is usually for positive reasons while English equivocation is usually for negative reasons. It is also found that couplet procedure in translation is the most appropriate in translating this style.
Keywords: Arabic equivocation, double speak ,the round meaning, foreignizing translation, couplet procedure

Translation Problems of Muqabala problems in Arabic Literary Texts into English

Anwar Al Janabi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1231-1252
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170343

Abstract
This study deals with the problems in translating Muqabala (opposition ) in Arabic literary texts. Muqabala term is a style depends on the principle of establishing an opposition between words, meanings, or ideas in order to achieve rhetorical goals and intellectual values.
The present study aims at exploring muqabala in Arabic, showing its translatability into English, and specifying some problems that may arise in translation process.
It is hypothesized that translating muqabala faces some kind of difficulty since the concept of muqabala does not exist in English. Thus, the linguistic and cross cultural differences may differ substantially in Arabic from English. It is also hypothesized that translating Muqaabala is a possible process, although it does not exist in English. The study concludes that muqabala has an important role in language use and most translators succeeded in producing the opposition between the words or expressions in one way or another. It is hoped to be useful for researchers interested in Arabic literature as well as teachers and students of literary translation.

Distance Education: Prospects, Technologies and Challenges

Arwa Luay Luay Abdulkhaleq .Asst. Lect

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1138-1155
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170339

Abstract
Distance education (henceforth DE) has gained momentum and become famous all over the world. It has become a feasible solution to increase worldwide access to education. This study examines the main outlooks, prospects, technologies, and challenges facing DE in line with international best practices, as well as the need to expand the benefits and interests of many learners. To present an accurate view of these aspects in this study, 20 samples referring to these aspects were randomly selected from different authoritative international universities. Then, observation and testing have been conducted to answer the research questions. Many prospects are being achieved by applying such a system of education. Moreover, the researchers identify many technical devices that have been used in this area with their advantages and disadvantages. Challenges are the most influential concepts that affect the whole process, its usefulness: development and success.
Key words: Distance education, prospects technology, challenges

The application of Vinay and Darbelnet Model to translating the Names of QurĀnic surahs into English

Safwan Hameed Safi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 1201-1230
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.170342

In this study, the linguistic model of Vinay and Darblenet will be applied to translating the Qur’ānic names of surahs. In fact, this model is made up of seven main procedures with which the different texts of various meanings can be dealt. The names of surahs have been classified into twenty semantic fields, each one has a group of names sharing common notions. Practically, fifteen renditions of the names of Quranic surahs have been selected as samples for analysis. The name of surah are analyzed according to three levels: morphological, linguistic, and contextual levels, in order to specify the exact meaning precisely. Then, the renditions have been sorted under the seven procedures of the adopted model in accordance with the relevant criteria of each. Finally, the nearest and the most appropriate technique of such a surah’s name has been chosen after discussing all of the given renditions. The study concludes that the model adopted is highly applicable in this subject matter.

The Importance of Cultural Context in Analyzing the Discourse of Seller-Buyer Interaction

Khalida Suood suood Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1596-1615
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.169688

Abstract
The study represents everyday life struggle in which language is considered as a problem-solving process. The current study is an attempt to investigate Mosuli cultural and Islamic traditions as a crucial factor for explaining linguistic formulas used by maneuvers in seller-buyer interaction. It also investigates the socio-linguistic variables and their effect on sequential organization, the types and more frequent acts in seller- buyer interaction and to see what are the specific choices of speech, style and the most frequent acts.
It is found that the cultural context is an effective factor in understanding and analyzing the linguistic utterances as acts which represents strategies for pricing and purchasing and that speech acts reflect the social and cultural traditions related to language. Social and Islamic traditions as generosity and hospitality are deeply rooted in the Mosuli society. Moreover, sellers and buyers avoid in most cases threatening the negative face to reach their goal of persuasion.
Adopting Sinclair-Coulthard's model(1975), the study has come up with a set of conclusions among which : understanding the cultural context is crucial for successful performance of selling buying strategies, speech acts and addressing forms help in accomplishing the negotiation process; also speech acts as strategies are heavily used to achieve the goal of interlocutors in Mosuli society.

Functions of Intertextuality in Some Extracts of Modern Arabic Novels.‎

Abdulkareem Zaidan Abed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1448-1505
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.169683

Abstract
‎ Intertextuality can basically be defined as the influence and existence of previous texts or ‎speeches in the construction of present one. The current study tackles the problem that ‎determining the functions of the intertextual elements helps in better understanding and ‎interpreting of literary texts. Thus, not well-equipped readers of intertextuality and its functions ‎get problems in interpreting and understanding some texts filled of such functions. The present ‎study aims to: firstly, investigate the intertextual types in some Mahfouz’s novel, namely,‎‏"‏Khan ‎al-Kahlili‏"‏‎ (1946), "al-Midaq Alley" (1947) and "Awlad Haratina" (1959), secondly, look at ‎the functions of intertextuality in the three novels under focus. The hypotheses the present study ‎puts forward are as follows: firstly, realizing functions of intertextuality is a crucial element ‎contributes for better understanding different layers of a literary text. Secondly, intertextuality ‎enhances and enriches the aesthetic structure of literary texts. As for the analysis of data, the ‎study has adapted Ahmed’s model (2010). Accordingly, intertextuality is divided into three ‎main types, namely, religious intertextuality, literary intertextuality and other types of ‎intertextuality. It is found that intertextuality is utilized by writers for: communicative, rhetorical ‎and aesthetic functions. It is also discovered that intertextuality is a useful strategy employed by ‎text producers.‎

Investigating the Use of Picture Strip Story Strategy and Video Strategy in Teaching Listening Comprehension to EFL Learners at University Level

Iman Ghanim Doski

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 3, Pages 1521-1556
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.169685

The main aim of this research is to investigate which strategy (Picture Strip Story Strategy or Video Strategy) has more effect on learners’ listening comprehension proficiency.
The main problems that face EFL learners with regard to listening comprehension relate to the strategies that have been used for listening and the purpose of listening process. Thus, three null-hypotheses are set to investigate the use of picture strip story strategy and video strategy in teaching listening comprehension and their effect on learners' listening comprehension proficiency.
A quantitative research design is adopted. The sample (randomly selected) has consisted of (50) participants. They have been divided equally into two groups. The participants have been studying at Department of English, Basic Education College in Mosul University.
The content taught which is consisted of (8) videos is chosen from the documentaries of BBC channel. The length of each one is around (5-7) minutes. The same material is edited to suit the group whom taught by using picture strip story strategy. In addition, MCQ test is used for data-collecting. Then, t-test statistic tool is used for analyzing the collected data.
Finally, the results reveal that both strategies are useful for teaching listening comprehension. Group (B) who taught by using video strategy has scored (16.4800) which is more than group (A) who taught using picture strip story strategy whom has scored(13.2800).

Translating the speech act of Insinuating in Shakespearean Tragedy, Othello

Anfal Qubais Saeed Alfahady

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1754-1777
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168575

Abstract:
The present research intents to study the speech act of insinuating in the Shakespearean tragedy Othello .In the light of pragmatics in general and speech acts theory in particular.
Both literary translation and linguistic, represented by speech act theory deal with the performative function of language rather than the communicative role of language. Both of them highlight the implicit meaning of the literary text through tracing the characters motives, emotions, needs, and concerns for mapping the implicit meaning of the text and conveying it into the target language. The Arabic translation of Othello, introduced by the national council for translation, Egypt represents some translation problems of the speech act of insinuating in the Shakespearean tragedy. Thus, the present study aims at highlighting the main principles of speech act theory that can reflect insinuating in Shakespearean Tragedy, Othello. In addition, it connect the main principles of speech act theory to the literary translation through selected texts of the Arabic translation of Othello, translated by Muhamed Mustafa Badawy.
The research hypothesizes that :1.speech act theory can be applied to this particular literary genre (tragedy),and 2.the source and target languages might exhibit network of different patterns of the acts. Finally the study ends with some conclusions .

. The Employment of Accents at the Training Interpreting Sessions: Perspectives of Iraqi Translation Students.

Wehaj Muneer Esmail; Sameer Salih Mahdi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1731-1745
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168572

In the field of interpreting and teaching translation, learning British English or American English accents are essential issues for the students of translation.
This study aims to highlight the perspectives of translation students at two Iraqi Universities (a state university: Mustansiriyah and a private one: Al-Ma'moon) towards the value of the British or American accents during leaning and translating processes. Therefore, 174 students who listened to the same texts in the two accents and from different topics such as tourism and hotel management, business management, agriculture and forest, etc… heard the auditable texts totally. They were asked to give their conceptions to 12 statements depending on the scale of Likert "Five-point" that aims to know their perspectives from the weakest (never or almost never) to the strongest (always or almost always). The results of the answers were described and analyzed according to the SPSS 16 program. The students' given answers to the questions in the questionnaire are intended to highlight their perspectives towards the role of the accent, which proves that accent has an essential role in translating into English, and it requires to be heavily focused by the translation trainers throughout the interpreting pedagogy.

Investigating the Relation of Anxiety to Learners' Listening Comprehension Proficiency Using Visual Strategies

Iman Ghanim Doski; Ziyad Fadhil Rasheed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 1715-1730
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.168571

Listening comprehension is a cognitive approach to deal with spoken texts. However, listening to foreign language causes anxiety to the learners of that language. Two null-hypotheses have been employed to investigate the relation of anxiety to learners' listening comprehension proficiency using visual strategies, namely, picture strip story strategy and video strategy.
To find out the relation between learners' anxiety and their listening comprehension proficiency by using picture strip story strategy and video strategy, the researcher has used a questionnaire which is consisted of (20) items. The questionnaire is Likert-type scale . A qualitative method research design is adopted. And the sample consists of (50) participants whom are randomly selected and split equally into two groups. The subjects have been studying at Department of English /Basic Education College / Mosul University. Each group is taught by using one strategy as in table(1):
Table (1) Groups of the Study
Group A Group B
Picture Strip Story Strategy Video Strategy

Pearson Correlation Formula is used for data-analysis. The results are as follows:
 There is a positive relation between learners' listening anxiety and their listening comprehension proficiency of the group whom taught by using picture strip story strategy.
 There is a positive relation between learners' listening anxiety and their listening comprehension proficiency of the group whom taught by using video strategy.

A Discoursal Approach to Analysing English Nursery Rhymes

Hiba Ahmed Sheet

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2021, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1009-1036
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2021.167754

Nursery rhymes are simple poetry written in nature, in a particular language that children can understand and enjoy. The present study investigates nursery rhymes in English from a discoursal point of view. The study aims at making a discoursal analysis of nursery rhymes in English through examining their thematic, schematic and linguistic features. To achieve these aims, the study hypothesizes that 1) English shows various discourse principles in their composition of nursery rhymes. 2)English nursery rhymes have macrostructural, superstructural and microstructural organization. To attain the data relevant to the topic of the study, five English nursery rhymes have been selected to be investigated. Data analysis is conducted on the basis of Van Dijk's socio-cognitive approach of discourse analysis. The study has revealed the following main findings. First, English nursery rhymes vary in their themes. They concentrate on social and emotional issues. Second, at the microstructural level, English nursery rhymes show differences in their semantic, syntactic, stylistic and rhetorical features. Such differences are represented either in the type of the used discoursal elements or in the frequency of their occurrence.

A Pragmatic Study of Congratulation Responses in Iraqi Arabic

Arwa Luay Luay Abdulkhaleq .Asst. Lect

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1121-1138
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167270

The present study is a pragmatic study of congratulation responses in Iraqi Arabic. It aims at finding out the main and sub- responses strategies in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses, figuring out the more frequent types of positive politeness strategies used in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses and investigating the influence of gender in expressing the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses concerning the questions above. The researcher hypothesizes that there are different responses strategies used in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses. In the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses, there are positive politeness strategies more frequently used than others, and the congratulation responder's gender affects his / her Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses. By using a discourse completion test(DCT), the researcher verifies these hypotheses to be conducted on 60 students(males/females) at Mosul University/ College of Basic Education/Department of English as a sample for the research. The test consists of ten happy situations, and the participants have to imagine the situations that his/her friend is congratulating him/her and to write their responses in Arabic. Finally, the data have to be analyzed in terms of the taxonomy proposed by Elwood (2004) and then by the positive politeness strategies stated by Brown and Levinson (1987). Based on the results of the current study, it has been found that there are different responses strategies used in the Iraqi Arabic congratulation responses, there are positive politeness strategies more frequently used than others, and finally, males and females employ somewhat similar congratulation responses strategies but with varying frequencies and realizations.

Investigating the Impact of Using Incidental Vocabulary Learning on Enhancing EFL Learners’ Motivation at University Level

Shaimaa Nuaimee; Shoaib Al-Fahady

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1057-1074
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167271

The current research aims to investigate the effect of incidental learning strategy on EFL university students’ motivation to learn English based on the incidental learning strategy. In the light of this aim, the researcher has set one null hypothesis to be tested.
The researcher adopted the one-group experimental design. Accordingly, a sample of 40 students has been intentionally chosen from among the second year students at the Dept. of English/ College of Basic Education/ University of Mosul for the academic year 2019/ 2020 after applying an achievement test on the population of the research where the sample were chosen from among the students at the lowest level in the achievement test.
The instrument has been prepared by the researcher herself to collect the data based on the dependent variable namely motivation. A questionnaire on students’ motivation was constructed. The validity and reliability of the instrument was verified and tested. It was implemented before the experiment and after applying it to test where a difference in the level of motivation to learn English is. The collected data were statistically analyzed by using different statistical means.
The findings of this research show that the incidental learning is an effective strategy in motivating students to learn English as a foreign language.

The Phonological Features of Non – Arab Workers' Interlanguage in Iraq

Ahmed Dhari Gorji Alobaidi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1103-1120
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167269

Interlannguge is defined as a type of language used by second or foreign language learners in the process of learning the target language; it is an intermediate phase between first and second language. This study aims at providing a phonological description of the Baghdadi Interlanguage ( henceforth BIL ) used by the Bengali workers in Baghdad province , the capital of Iraq. The primary purpose of this study is to substantiate whether this newly emerged variety is an interlanguage or a pidgin , also to solve many tutorial problems in this variety by identifying the errors of the learners of second language in the field of phonology . Data collection was based on some interviews , accompanied by a list of personal questions with four Bengali workers from both genders ( males and females ) , ( two males and two females ).
It is found that this new variety is an interlanguage not a pidgin since the characteristics of interlanguage are achieved in this study throughout the stages of the developments of this newly emerged variety ( interlanguage ) . The study also finds that the main phonological differences between the Baghdadi dialect and the interlanguage ( IL ) are in the consonant phonemes rather than the vowel ones.

Hymes and Sacks Models in Discourse Analysis of Short Story

saffana Ayed Al-kattabee

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1041-1056
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167266

ABSTRACT
Discourse analysis is considered as an instrument in analyzing elements which influence on our understanding of a particular text. Thus, discourse analysis is a highly coherent model in analyzing any spoken, like conversation, or written, like short story text.
The aim of this study is to analyze the discourse analysis of a short story, to show how the discourse is initiated, developed and terminated. How the characters participate, interact and what are the relationships among them, how those characters are introduced in the story; how they interrupt, ask questions, and how turns are distributed. The study also aims at counting the number of topics and how they are interrelated. To know whether the sequence of events is logical or not. In order to achieve these aims, the study adopts the discourse analysis of a written text of a short story namely, The Man of the House, by analyzing and describing the different strategies like initiating, developing, and terminating. In this study, the model of discourse analysis is eclectic, comprising of three models; Hymes model (1972) who suggests the category of "speech event", and Sacks model (1968) which proposes interaction analysis based on four categories "conversation", "topic", "sequence", and "turn".

The Effect of Circumstances of Death and Funeral Ceremony on Condolence in English and Arab Societies

Abbas Alobaidi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 1089-1102
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.167268

The present study is an investigation into circumstances of death and funeral ceremony and their effect on condolence expressions in English and Arab societies .the problem of the study stems from the fact that both circumstances of death and funeral ceremony differ in both societies, and this has its bearing on condolence expressions in English and Arabic .It aims at showing whether the circumstances of death affect the grief and condolence expressions ,and seeing whether funeral ceremonies differ from one society to another according to traditions and religion. It is found here that in English society, condolence expressions are often non-verbal expressions, whereas in Arab society, condolence expressions are usually verbal expressions, and that the death circumstances in English society do not affect condolence expressions ,whereas in Arab society they play a significant role in choosing the condolence expressions, in addition to having an effect on the number of condolers.

The Main Themes in Heart of Darkness

Lubab Eltayeb Elmukashfi Elmukashfi; Ayad Mohammed Ali Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 987-1009
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.166007

          Joseph Conrad wrote the novel the heart of darkness in the year 1899. He started writing this novel with a greatest plot of dominant themes from 1898 and competed the writing in the year 1899 February. This novella was first published by William Blackwood and Sons and released in Edinburgh on 13th November 1902 (Dominic Davies (2019)). This novella was rich with dominant themes namely Imperialism, White Man’s Burden, Lack of Truth, Colonization, Exploitation, Racial Discrimination, Alienation and Isolation, Moral Corruption, Violence and Human Greed and Deception. The novel was written to enlighten the effects of Imperialism and Colonialism with the power of freedom and rationalist thought inherited from his Polish parents of Conrad.  This novel was a predominant work to reveal the dominant themes raised from his inmost heart against the supremacy and racial discrimination demonstrated by the European emperors against the Asian and African people. This novel has reflected the contemporary political, social and economic conditions of Belgian Congo was witness with x-ray eyes. X-Ray indicates the external appearance as well as internal feelings. Heart of Darkness is the book which demonstrate the colonizers dominated the native Africans in the areas of Belgian Congo (Fothergill, Anthony (2003) PP 85-97).

Students' Performance Evaluation Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Samah Fakhri Aziz Aziz

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 977-986
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.166006

Predicting student performance is very important to the success of any educational process. Harnessing methods of data mining and machine learning to predict their performance based on data available in schools and student records can explain their behavior, the impact of each factor on the progress of the educational process for students, the relationship of the age stage and follow-up of parents and days of absence. This paper discusses the possibility of harnessing machine learning algorithms to predict student performance and determine the importance of each factor to that performance and Comparing the performance of machine learning algorithms (GBDT-RFDT-Deeplearning) in exploring educational data.

Discourse Analysis of Short Story 'The Man of the House'

Saffana Ayed Husein Al-Khattabee; Wayees Jallud Ibrahim Ibrahim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 954-975
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.166005

Discourse analysis is considered as an instrument in analyzing elements which influence on our understanding of a particular text. Thus, discourse analysis is a highly coherent model in analyzing any spoken, like conversation, or written, like short story text.
The aim of this study is to analyze the discourse analysis of a short story, to show how the discourse is initiated, developed and terminated. How the characters participate, interact and what are the relationships among them, how those characters are introduced in the story; how they interrupt, ask questions, and how turns are distributed. The study also aims at counting the number of topics and how they are interrelated. To know whether the sequence of events is logical or not, and to know the fillers (Ah, Oh) and their functions. Further, the study tries to analyze a short story fro the grammatical point of view for stylistic characterization relying on (A Practical English Grammar) (1986) (Fourth Edition) by A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet. Also, to determine the speech acts and their percentages.
In order to achieve these aims, the study adopts the discourse analysis of a written text of a short story namely, The Man of the House, by analyzing and describing the different strategies like initiating, developing, and terminating. In this study, the model of discourse analysis is eclectic, comprising of three models; Hymes model (1972) who suggests the category of "speech event", and Sacks model (1968) which proposes interaction analysis based on four categories "conversation", "topic", "sequence", and "turn". Finally Sinclair-and Coulthard’s model (1975) of speech acts classification.
The present study hypothesizes that discourse analysis is conducted depending on the text and context and how the two terms complete each other. The meaning of the text is completed by action. Analysis is to be achieved structurally and linguistically. It is also found that the discourse is composed of the cooperating of acts, interaction of the participants, sequence of events, topics, and other units.
Throughout the analysis, it has been found that the participants perform different speech acts such as nomination which is the most frequently used. The frequency of nomination is 1156 which represents 52.3% of the total acts, reaction forms 555 which represents 25.1%. Evaluation records 198 which represents 8.9% of the total number of acts. There are other speech acts like comment, obligation, manner, and metastatement mentioned in the story. These acts vary according to their usages and functions, and percentages. In the analysis of speech events, the number of major events is 22 which forms (24.5%), while the number of minor events is 68 which forms (75.5%). It is worth mentioning that the participants in the aforementioned story are of different social classes.
The participants sometimes address each other by using terms of address in order to show respect, especially some of them are of higher status. The story is narrated in the first person pronoun ( I ), which means that the writer talks about his personal life. Sullivan did most of the turns, (41) which represents 47.6% of the total turns as he is the protagonist and the most important participant in the story. Dooley had (14) turns so that she came second in order that represents 16.2%. The mother came third in rank and did (13) turns which represents 15.5%. Some of the participants participated in conversations more than others, Dooley and Sullivan for instance participate in 12 turns which represents 29.2%, while Minnie and Sullivan participate in 9 turns which forms 21.9%.
Within the grammatical analysis, it is found that the number of content words are 4632 which represents 76.5%, the number of content words is 1420 which represents 23.4%, the number of definite articles is 290 which represents 73.9%, the number of indefinite articles is 102 which represents 26.0% of the total number of articles. The total number of nouns, such as countable nouns, singular nouns, feminine nouns, used by the story author is 2439.
Discourse analysis shows when and where the turns and topics are shifted, and changed. The use of fillers, such as (Ah) and (Oh), is important and related to the use of discourse; (Ah) occurs 8 times that is 72.7%, whilst (Oh) occurs 3 times that is 27.2%. Finally, the linguistic analysis of literature has many implications and benefits for language teaching.