Keywords : Crusades

Minerals of Bilad al-sham During the Crusades

Saad Ramadhan Mohammaed AL- Joboori

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2013, Volume 12, Issue 4, Pages 425-454

It is quite obvious that the period of crusades had negative effects on the minerals in Bilad Al-Sham. However, this does not mean that these minerals were considerably neglected or not employed in the economic fields; but some people would rather view it as a historic economic event between the Islamic East and the European West, especially when we know that these countries have different kinds of minerals–conventional or precious. The former included iron, copper and lead, while the latter included gold and silver. The minerals were used in various industrial, civil and military fields. The Shami craftsmen were creative in the production of various artifacts which became well known in different parts of the world known at that time and influenced the European West considerably. Museums around the world still have some of these priceless artifacts. Minerals trade also witnessed a remarkable circulation between the European West and Islamic East. This undoubtedly was due to the huge demand on different kinds of minerals to meet both the needs of war against the crusaders and the local industries. The Ayoobi princes and sultans as well as the Mamlukes exerted great efforts that contributed to the development of mineral-based industries through encouraging many craftsmen, particularly those from Mosul city known by the art of Takfeet , to emigrate to Bilad Al-Sham.