Keywords : ,،,؛/1876
College Of Basic Education Research Journal,
2022, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 531-548
We note that the Ottoman Empire in the mid-nineteenth century had undergone a period of weakness , deterioration and maladministration ,both internally and externally , as a result of the problems and wars that were wrought upon the country , As a result of all these things , the idea of reform emerged in order to improve the conditions of Ottoman Empire and move it forward, Accordingly, a class of personalities emerged calling for reform, similar to the European system through taking and benefiting from this system , They were fully convinced that the Ottoman Empire would never rise except by introducing reforms and organizations in all the state facilities . Among the prominent personalities that emerged at this period was Medhat pasha, who greatly contributed to the implementation of reforms and worked hard to draft a special constitution for the Ottoman Empire , After negotiations and consultations in order to develop and implement the constitution , we note that this constitution did not last for a long time due to the emergence of personalities who opposed it , such as Sultan Abdul Hamid ll who believed that this constitution was not appropriate for the Ottoman State and was contrary to the lslamic caliphate and the Ottoman traditions , so he dismissed Midhat pasha from his position and exiled him Then he issued a decree in which he ordered the abolition of the constitution , and it has already been repealed , and not reinstated until after 1908 AD .