Keywords : Mountain Environment
The Study of the Biological Diversity in the Mountainous Environment of North and North-Eastern Iraq -Problems and Solutions-
College Of Basic Education Research Journal,
2020, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 567-592
The current research aims to study the biological diversity in the mountainous environment of north and north-eastern Iraq and to discover the geographical factors affecting this diversity in terms of natural factors, climate, terrain, water resources and human factors from population growth, road construction, overfishing, shrinking pastures and military operations, and the change experienced by living things in The study area during the past decades, as animals, wild birds and even vegetation were subjected to declining numbers and shrinking the area of their natural habitats, which was reflected in the deterioration of the natural heritage of the study area, and therefore large groups of them were exposed to the risk of extinction, and in order to determine the current reality of the biological diversity of the mountain region, In this study, research, references, and reports of international and local organizations from the Iraqi Ministry of Environment, the United Nations Environment Program, the Nature Organization of Iraq, and publications of the Iraqi Natural History Museum were , which included recent explorations of the neighborhoods of the region along with some field visits for the year 2018 AD, and the use of geographical information systems (GIS) programs then come up with some results that serve the search.The study revealed the existence of a rich diversity of plant and animal organisms, forest ecosystems and an ecosystem of natural caves in the mountain environment, and the existence of a relationship and impact between climate and surface manifestations on the diversity and distribution of wildlife, in addition to the multiple human factors that have affected the numbers and types of these organisms, The bottom line is that the mountainous region possesses physiographic features from a geographical location, diverse terrain, a favorable climate, and a rational government, all of which qualifies it to become safe havens for biological diversity and the genetic banks of living organisms if the best use of these resource constituents is provided.