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About Journal     College of Basic Education Research Journal is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY) license, this journal started publishing, in 2003, quarterly by the College of Basic Education, University of Mosul. We use I Thenticate to prevent plagiarism and ensure our submitted manuscripts' originality. A double-blind peer-reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of publication.     The journal publishes original articles, review papers and case reports in science and humanity....
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The Poetic Vision: An Inductive Approach

Fatima Sabah Mansoor; Wasan Abdulghani Al-Mukhtar

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 1-21
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176424

    This research aims to shed light on the concept of the poetic vision, being a cornerstone for any poetic work. It is, in fact, a complex concept in which all the components of the poetic text are interrelated to show the poet's vision and attitudes towards the world. The current research adopts the inductive method as far as the concept of the poetic vision is concerned to be the most appropriate method to comprehensively tackle this concept. According to Blake's theory, 'vision' refers to the sequence of levels, starting from sight, heart, cognition, and then imagination. This sequence includes all the meanings concerned with 'vision' and 'imagination' at the same time. Hence, the present research deals with the following axes:

The concept of vision in language and terminology and the difference between them.
 The concept of 'vision' in the philosophical thinking.
The concept of 'vision' in the Arabic literary critical thinking.
The concept of 'vision' in the Western literary-critical thinking
Elements of poetic vision which are divided based according to the scholars' agreement on displacement, imagination, image, and memory.

The Rhetorical Witness of Nasif Al-Yaziji in His Book "Al Traaz Al Mualam", Documentation and Study

عمار إسماعیل أحمد

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 22-61
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176425

The research deals with a scholar of language and literature who served them with his books and lessons. The choice was made on a rhetorical book from his books (the marked model) to inspect its virtues and document its evidence that he relied on in clarifying the rhetorical topics that he presented in this book. When we took stock of the evidence, it became clear to us that they were from the Noble Qur’an, the Prophet’s Hadith, and the words of the Arabs, poetry and prose, running on those who preceded him in this field. , and a definition of the terms specific to those evidence, and we dealt with the definition of the author, his name, lineage, writings and death, then his approach in the book that we are blocking and the topics of rhetoric with its three sciences and a conclusion that outlined the most important results reached by the research and proven sources and references and an appendix to the indexes of verses, prophetic hadiths, poems and Arab proverbs

Human Values in Majnun Laila's Poetry

Tahseen Darwish Sulaiman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 62-94
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176426

         The Diwan of Qais bin Al-Malouh, known as “Majnoun Laila,” includes values belonging to various types of human systems such as social, religious and emotional, and in each of them it is possible to trace human values to their universality by describing that poets - especially sentimental ones among them - express the latent of human nature and that poetry, unanimously by critics, is the most Literary literature. Majnoun Layla is an Umayyad poet who became famous throughout the Arab and foreign world on the historical, literary and artistic levels. This research tries to give, through the preface, a detailed explanation of the title in language and terminology, and to talk briefly and appropriately to the place about the life of the poet and the opinion of poets and critics in it. Then, the research tries to extract human values ​​on the three religious, tribal and social axes and to define their concept and how to distinguish them from other types of other values ​​that are not usually described in this capacity. It also tries to search for the artistic dimension of human values ​​at the level of language, image and rhythm among other things, aspires to elevate the level of research aesthetically, and includes discussion and responses to some critics who went so far as to claim that Majnoun Laila’s character is a legendary character that was not realistic and their argument that his poetry contains human values ​​and feelings. It is more like a fantasy for its promotion over the real world, and sometimes even the ideal. So, the research adopts a number of scientific clues and evidence to refute those allegations that some of them made against them in terms of “knowing disagreement” only, and others thought that he was called "insane" due to a defect in his mind, so the research extrapolates linguistic texts to prove that an excess of something may be called insanity, and not just a lack of reason. The poetic technical aspects of the poet have not been neglected, as the research reveals that the poet had a prominent interest in choosing the appropriate words, movements, letters, and seas, taking into account the internal and external rhythm, to appropriately reflect the experience he is about in terms of significance, symbol, intertextuality, and care for the poetic image in its response and impact on the recipient because the artistic image is the essence of poetic expression.

The Natural and the Industrial Place in the Story Collection "Ginoon Wa Maa Ashbah" by Najman Yassin

Shahad Hamid M. Al- Sofi; Ashtar Dawood Mohammad

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 95-112
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176427

            The place is one of the most important elements that make up the beauty of the fictional text. The presence of the place in the fictional work is very important, as there is no story without a place. It is an element of the story and a general drive for the characters and events in the story. The writers are closely linked to the place, as Najman Yassin in this group (Junoon and the like). In this group, the place seems close to it psychologically and spiritually.
This study reveals the aesthetics of the place in the stories (Junoon and the like), which is one of the most mature narrative experiences. This study seeks to distinguish the natural places from the industrial ones that the narrator mentioned in the story and analyze them, and his impressions in the fictional text. The first topic is concerned with the natural place, including (the sky, the river, and the mountain), while the second is concerned with the industrial place (the room, the café, and the basement). The study is based on a wide range of sources and references including: "Qaala AlRawee" by Saeed Yaqteen and  "Chadal Al Qiraa" by Najeeb Al-Awfi. Finally, the study is relied on the analytical study of the place in the narrative texts to reveal the artistic and aesthetic value of the place.
                 

Verses of reverence in the Holy Quran Objective study

Hana Abdel Rahman Taher

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 113-130
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176428

          Submissiveness is the standing of the heart in the hands of Allah Almighty with submission, humility, and convergence to Him, and the delicacy of the heart, stillness, brokenness, and burning. Submissiveness is the extinguishing of the flames of lust, the stillness of the smoke in the breasts, the shining of the light of glorification in the heart, and the evocation of Allah's greatness, prestige, and majesty. Submissiveness is a common denominator between morals, belief, and action. They feed it with fear of Allah, so it fulfills its purpose in the soul and the heart together. Submissiveness is a legitimate meaning and a Sunni behavior, in which all submission is to Allah, Lord of the worlds. Al-Junayd said that submissiveness is the submission of hearts to the All-Knower of the Unseen. The heart is the ruler of the body, so if the heart is humbled, then the hearing, sight, face and all the organs, and what arose from them, even speech, are humbled. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah - may Allah have mercy on him - believes in Majmoo’ al-Fatawa: 7/28 that humility includes two meanings: the first is humility, groveling while the second includes: stillness and tranquility. He says: “This necessitates softness of the heart, and contradicts harshness, for the heart’s submissiveness includes its servitude to Allah, and its tranquility as well, and for this reason submissiveness in prayer includes this, and this: humility and stillness.” Submissiveness is a useful knowledge that touches the heart, so it necessitates for it tranquility and fear, and concealment, humility, and refraction to Allah, and all of these are a filter from the overflow of submissiveness. On the authority of Zaid bin Arqam - may Allah be pleased with him - that the Prophet - may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him - used to say: “O Allah, I seek refuge in You from knowledge that does not benefit, and from a heart that does not submit, and from a soul that is not satisfied, and from a supplication that is not answered.” (Narrated by Muslim).

Preserving religion in the Jewish and Christian religions

Ali Hussein Ali; Yasser Ahmed Abdullah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 131-151
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176430

There is no doubt that the most important thing that a person possesses in this life is his religion, which Allah has bestowed upon him, Religion is like the soul to the body, just as a person cannot live without a soul, the human condition cannot be far from religion, and that the goal of preserving religion is not limited to the Islamic religion, as our distinguished scholars have stated, but it is the goal of all religions and in particular the heavenly religions. In this research, preserving is proved with the purpose of preserving religion in the Jewish and Christian religions.  The sanctity of religion in each of the two laws separately was taken by following the texts in the Torah and the Gospels indicating the purpose of preserving the religion, which calls for the sincerity of monotheism to Allah Almighty, which is the greatest goal that all the messengers and prophets came with
.

The Struggle of Truth and Falsehood in the Holy Quran The Story of Abraham Peace Be Upon Him, as a Model

Hanan Subhi Salman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 152-183
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176431

Abstract
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, and prayers and peace be upon the Master of Messengers, Muhammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family and companions altogether.
This research deals with the issue of the conflict between truth and falsehood in the Holy Quran, and the story of Abraham, peace be upon him, is chosen as a model for this conflict. The research is divided into two sections. In the first section, the concept of truth and falsehood through defining truth and falsehood linguistically and idiomatically is presented, then clarifying the descriptions of truth and descriptions of falsehood in the Holy Qur’an. After that, the forms of conflict between truth and falsehood, are shown through dialogue or through fighting. Then, the field of this conflict in the story of Ibrahim PBUH is explained where the first field of conflict was with His father by calling Him to leave polytheism and worship the one and only Allah, then, His struggle with His people who worship idols and idols, then His last struggle with the arrogant tyrant Nimrod.

Saying the matter whether it is required immediately or not required

Sura Najm Al-Din Abdul Razzaq; Mudhar Haider Mahmoud Al-Yuzbeki

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 184-201
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176432

The research deals with the imperative, whether it requires immediateness or not, discussing the scholars' views, and focusing on editing the place of their disagreement about the issues related to it. then, various statements of scholars with their fundamentalist evidence and stating the objections and responses contained therein are mentioned, and the impact of this dispute on the branches of jurisprudence
One of the most prominent findings is that the disagreement in this issue results in many jurisprudent issues, including the permissibility of delaying the payment of zakat to its beneficiaries, as some said: the imperative is immediate and said that postponing the end of the year is forbidden. Others said:   immediateness is not beneficial even if it is done after a while, and other issues mentioned are the subject of the research.

The level of mastery of Arabic language teachers at the secondary stage with methods Develop persuasive writing skills

mahmoud هلال abdelkader

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 202-224
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176433

The current study aimed to reveal the level of mastery of Arabic language teachers at the secondary stage in the methods of developing persuasive writing skills among first-year secondary students; To achieve this goal, research materials and tools were prepared, which consisted of: a list of persuasive writing skills appropriate for first-year secondary students, a list of methods for developing persuasive writing skills among students, a note card for methods of developing persuasive writing skills, then ensuring the stability and validity of those tools, then choosing The study sample is among the Arabic language teachers teaching Asir in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, then the study tool was applied to the sample. The researcher used the descriptive approach; For its relevance with the nature of the research, then the statistical analysis was carried out using the spss program, then the process of analyzing and interpreting the results and providing recommendations and proposed research. The results of the study showed: a list of persuasive writing skills suitable for first-year secondary students, a list of methods for developing persuasive writing skills for first-year secondary students, a low level of mastery of Arabic language teachers at the secondary level in methods of developing persuasive writing skills.

معالم التربیة العقدیة على الإیمان بالله تعالى من خلال أسماء الله الحسنى (الجمیل , الجواد , الحیی)

بشار شعلان عمر; فاطمة حیدر ابراهیم

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 225-242
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176434

    تم بحمد الله تعالى فی هذا البحث دراسة معالم التربیة العقدیة فی أسماء الله الحسنى (الجمیل, الجواد ، الحیی) من خلال المنهج النبوی الشریف , ودور هذا المنهج العظیم فی التربیة الإیمانیة وأهم معالمه التربویة . 
وقد  جاء البحث  بمقدمة  وثلاثة مطالب  وخاتمة ونتائج .
  جاء فی المطلب الأول : بیان اسم الله تعالى (الجمیل) ثم أهم المعالم التربویة على الإیمان بهذا الاسم من خلال المنهج النبوی الشریف .
    وجاء فی المطلب الثانی : بیان اسم الله تعالى (الجواد) ثم أهم المعالم التربویة على الإیمان بهذا الاسم من خلال المنهج النبوی الشریف .
 وقد احتوى المطلب الثالث : بیان اسم الله تعالى (الحیی) ثم أهم المعالم التربویة على الإیمان بهذا الاسم من خلال المنهج النبوی الشریف .
وکانت أهم النتائج هو الآتی  :
1- حرص النبی (صلى الله علیه وسلم) على تثبیت العقائد الإیمانیة من خلال اتباع طرق تربویة متعددة .
2- کانت أهم المعالم التربویة فی المنهج النبوی الشریف فی أسماء الله الحسنى( الجمیل , الجواد , الحیی ) , هی تقریب أسماء الله الحسنى لنفوس العباد من أجل تزکیة نفوسهم وتهذیبها , وکذلک حثهم على العمل بمعانی هذه الأسماء بالأقوال والأفعال من أجل أـن یکون لهم حظ فیها لتنصلح بذلک عقیدتهم وأمر دینهم , ففی اسم الله تعالى (الجمیل) ، فقد بین المنهج النبوی الشریف أن الله تعالى یحب من عبده أن یجمل لسانه بالصدق وقلبه بالإخلاص والمحبة والتوکل، وجوارحه بالطاعة، وبدنه بإظهار نعمه علیه فی لباسه، وتطهیره له من الأنجاس ، فیعرفه بصفات الجمال ویتعرف إلیه بالأفعال والأقوال والأخلاق الجمیلة، فیعرفه بالجمال الذی هو وصفه، ویعبده بالجمال الذی هو شرعه ودینه، فجمع الحدیث قاعدتین: المعرفة والسلوک , وفی اسم الله تعالى (الجواد) اشار المنهج النبوی الشریف إلى أن الإیمان بهذا الاسم یربی على تهذیب نفوس العباد الشحیحة، فالإنسان من طبعه أنه یحب المال حباً کثیراً، فالعبد إذا تعلّق باسم الله (الجواد) فإنه یحب أن یتحلّى بهذا الخلق الکریم، فیصبح جواداً مع الناس، و فی اسم الله تعالى (الحیی) أشار المنهج النبوی الشریف إلى أن الحیاء ینبغی أن یکون من الله تعالى، الذی نتقلب فی نعمه وإحسانه اللیل والنهار، ولا نستغنی عنه طرفة عین، ونحن تحت مراقبته سبحانه ، لا یغیب عنه من حالنا وقولنا وفعلنا شیء , فهو الذی خلقنا وهو الذی رزقنا، فنطعم من خیره ، ونعیش على أرضه، ونستظل بسمائه ,  فکیف لا نستحی منه ونعصی أوامره .

The impact of the circular house strategy on the systemic thinking of middle school students in geography

roslia basam

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 243-266
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176436

The current research aims to identify the effect of the circular house strategy on the systemic thinking of middle school students in the subject of geography. To achieve the goal of the research, the researcher formulated two null hypotheses, and deliberately chose a sample of fifth-grade students of middle school / literary from Homs High School for Girls for the academic year (2020-2021), and in a simple random way, she chose Division (A) to represent the experimental group that is taught by the circular house strategy, while Division (B) became the control group and is taught in the usual way, and the research sample reached (33) students, with (17) students for the experimental group and (16) students for the control group.
The researcher was rewarded between the two research groups in the following variables, the general average for the past year, the achievement in geography for the past year, the chronological age calculated in months, the degree of intelligence and the achievement of the father and the achievement of the mother. Both (Round House Strategy and the Ordinary Method).
As for the tool, it was a systemic thinking test, which in its final form consisted of (5) questions that included (11) paragraphs, and its validity, stability and distinction were verified, and all of them appeared within the acceptable range.

اثر نموذج برونر الاستقبالی فی تنمیة السلوک الاجتماعی لدى اطفال الروضة

زینة طه العبیدی; Zina Khalaf Hussein Al-Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 267-290
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176437

استهدف البحث التعرف على " أثر انموذج برونر الاستقبالی فی تنمیة السلوک الاجتماعی لدى أطفال الروضة "، ولتحقیق هدف البحث تمت صیاغة الفرضیة :"لا توجد ذات دلالة إحصائیة عند مستوى (05,0) بین متوسط درجات تنمیة السلوک الاجتماعی لأفراد المجموعة التجریبیة ومتوسط درجات تنمیة السلوک الاجتماعی لأفراد المجموعة الضابطة". وقد تکونت عینة البحث التی أُختیرَت بصورة قصدیة من أطفال التمهیدی للعام الدراسی (2018 - 2019م )، وقامت الباحثتان باعتماد أسلوب العشوائیة فی اختیار الأطفال من کل روضة لیکونوا عینة لبحثهما وبذلک أصبح عدد الأطفال (50) طفلاً وطفلة وبواقع (25) طفلاً وطفلة لکل مجموعة ،استعملت الباحثتان التصمیم التجریبی ذی المجموعتین المتکافئتین ذات الاختبار القبلی والبعدی، وأجریت عملیة التکافؤ بین مجموعتی البحث فی عدد من المتغیرات، ولتحقیق هدف البحث وفرضیاته قامت الباحثتان بتبنی مقیاس السلوک الاجتماعی المعد من قبل (المشهدانی 2017) وبعد استخراج الخصائص السیکو متریة للمقیاس أصبح المقیاس مکون من (34) فقرة جاهزة للتطبیق النهائی. وبعد جمع البیانات وتحلیلها إحصائیاً باستخدام الوسائل الاحصائیة أظهرت النتائج ما یأتی: توجد فروق ذات دلالة إحصائیة بین متوسط درجات السلوک الاجتماعی لأفراد المجموعة التجریبیة ومتوسط درجات السلوک الاجتماعی لأفراد المجموعة الضابطة ولصالح المجموعة التجریبیة

(The effect of the Montessori approach in developing the cognitive awareness of kindergarten children)

Dr.Eman Mohmad Shareef Assistant Professor Dr; Fadia Abdel Wahab

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 291-311
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176439

The aim of the research is to identify the impact of the Montessori approach in developing the cognitive awareness of kindergarten children. To achieve this goal, the following hypotheses were formulated:

The experimental method was relied on by choosing two random samples of kindergarten children (experimental and control) amounting to (50) boys and girls. And its stability, and it was applied to the two samples of children as an initial application, and after applying the Montessori method to the experimental sample, the scale was applied a second time to the two samples. There is a statistically significant difference for the experimental group in the pre and post tests and in favor of the post application, meaning that the Montessori approach had a positive impact in developing the cognitive awareness of the research sampl,
There is also a statistically significant difference for the experimental and control groups in the post-test and in favor of the experimental group, and this indicates the positive impact of the Montessori approach in developing the cognitive awareness of the experimental group.
A number of recommendations were presented, including the application of the Montessori approach in all private and governmental Riyadh because of its significant impact on thinking and cognitive abilities in general and the development of cognitive awareness in particular. And a number of proposals, including conducting extensive empirical research to find out the effect of using the Montessori method on many variables such as (social interaction, helping behavior, modifying unwanted behavior)

Effect of school Admin, Strations in Lessening Academic bullging field study in school of nineveh governorate

Safana Ahmed; Khalel mohammed Hussein

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 312-320
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176440

The cunent research aimsat setting the degree of practices of school headmasters of nineveh governorate to lessen academic bulling in primary schools from teachers perspectives. The sample was (100) surveys distributed on teachers in the municipality of nineveh and districts.chosen randomly.Descriptive me thod was adopted in answering questions.A survey was made , the validity and stubility of which was verified . The researchers concluded no statistically siginfi cant difference at the level wad found between the means of answers of the samples regarding survey according to service years . The degree of statistical signifi canee inallaxes was more than 0.5% thus, no statistically significant difference at (0.05) level between the means of sample responses regading survey axes according to academic qualification.Statistieal signifieance of all axes was more than 5% . The researchers recommend holding training courses for headmasters and staff about facing academic bullying ,develop spirit of tolerance and social cooperation amony students to eliminate such dangeruos pheno memon..

The Role of Secondary School Female Teachers in Promoting Positive Values among Female Students to Achieve the Requirements of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030

Ibtessam Abdulaziz Binnahedh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 321-346
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176441

            The study aims to identify the reality of the role that secondary school female teachers play in promoting positive values among female students to achieve the requirements of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 as well as to reveal the obstacles facing secondary school female teachers in promoting positive values ​​among female students. Furthermore, it tries to identify the ways that activate the role of secondary school female teachers in promoting values positive. The study follows the descriptive approach with a sample consisting of (80) secondary school female teachers in the city of (Al-Dawadmi), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study adopts the questionnaire as a tool to obtain the responses of the study sample members. It has come out with the following results: the role played by secondary school teachers is significant in promoting positive values ​​among female students to achieve the requirements of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030. Also, there are significant obstacles facing secondary school teachers in promoting positive values ​​among female students to achieve the requirements of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030. These obstacles include the absence of evaluation based on performance and a large number of female students in classrooms in crowded manner. The study concludes that there are many ways to activate the role of secondary school female teachers in promoting positive values ​​among female students to achieve the requirements of the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. These ways include the use of modern media techniques in promoting positive values ​​among female students. In light of the previous results, the study has recommended working on reducing the density of female students in classrooms and providing time for female teachers to promote the positive values ​​among female students that achieve the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's 2030 Vision.

The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on Visual Teaching Strategies in Developing the Recitation Skills of Students / Teachers in the Department of Qur’an Sciences

Ahmed Bassam Aziz; Saif Ismail Ibrahim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 347-378
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176442

         The research aims to identify the effectiveness of a training program based on visual teaching strategies in developing the recitation skills of students/teachers in the Department of Qur’an Sciences in the academic year (2021-2022). The research sample consists of (40) male and female students who have been committed to attending all sessions throughout the duration of the experiment. To achieve the goals of the research, the researchers have designed a training program based on visual teaching strategies, in which the content, concepts and definitions of the subject of recitation and a number of training plans for the sessions are organized which include (7) sessions, at a rate of one session for each week, in addition to formulating a zero hypothesis, which is: there is no statistically significant difference between the mean of the pre and posttests of the student teachers in the Department of Qur’an Sciences who have been trained according to the training program in developing recitation skills. A tool has been prepared, consisting of a test to measure recitation skills consisting of (64) items, and its apparent validity has been verified by presenting it to a group of experts and arbitrators, and after applying it to an exploratory sample consisting of (30) female students from the fourth stage in the Department of Qur’an Sciences, College of Education For girls, their psychometric characteristics have been verified, and after data collection, correction and statistical analysis using the t-test for an independent sample, the results have shown the following:   There is a statistically significant difference between the pre and post-recitation test, in favour of the post-test with the highest arithmetic mean. In the light of the research results, the researchers come out with a set of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions: There is a clear effect of the training program based on visual teaching to develop the recitation skills of the students and teachers in the Department of Qur’an Sciences, and the training positions provided by the program made teaching the recitation interesting and removed the misconceptions that it depends on recitation only compared to the rest of the study subjects, in addition to that the training program and the various strategies included in it helped in identifying modern strategies that would raise the experience of male and female teachers on the one hand, and students on the other. The researchers recommended directing the attention of the teachers to the subject of recitation by choosing the appropriate teaching strategies for the students, as well as identifying the prevailing activities and requirements to clarify and facilitate the ambiguity of some concepts that may accompany the presentation of the study material because the training process is more effective when the teaching strategies match the nature of the content of the study material.
 

Al-Safa Brothers, a historical study

Harith Jabbar Abd

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 379-401
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176443

         The Ikhwan Al-Safa and Khallan Al – Wafa group announced the highest ranks of exaltation; In the felid of philosophical knowledge and theological, within a purely Islamic intellectual framework, investing in the diversity of the cultures for the Arabic peoples under control of the Islamic state, they mixed between Eastern and Western civilizations, and performed it in a literary style with the utmost linguistic proficiency, and they produced many ideas that left a positive impact on the great scholars in the  natural scientific field  and applied sciences, such as Ibn Sina and others.                                                                                                
Controversial thing  that the Ikhwan Al-Safa took from their knowledge, educational and ideological output as a cover behind which they hid their political goals. Aiming to overthrow the state of immorality and vice (The State of Bani Abbas) and replace it with the state of justice and virtue, following a disciplined administrative system that branched out into several forms, adopting complete secrecy, in spreading their idea among the public and private, and winning more new affiliates with the  avoiding the oppression of the ruling authority. This explains the reason for not mentioning the names of the authors of their letters, which contained the secrets of their organization and success, based on the principle; be aware the way of your Lord with wisdom and good advice, and argue with them in a way that is best.

E-Learning and Its Role between Geographic Information Systems and Population Geography

Sahar Qassem Al-Taie; Hala Hassan Ahmed Al-Dabbagh

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 402-422
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176444

E-learning is one of the modern scientific methods that rely on scientific communication between the teacher and the student remotely via the Internet. It was present and widespread at the level of developed countries, but after the Corona pandemic, it was relied on in the study mainly for scientific communication between the teacher and students in both undergraduate and postgraduate studies.
On this basis, the global network was directed to learn and gain experiences in various fields, and geography was one of them. So, work was done to establish workshops and seminars to increase scientific knowledge, and this increased the exchange of scientific experiences among teachers in Arabic and international universities.  To complement this trend, the government dealt with e-learning as one of the important means of delivering science and knowledge to students and not interrupting them from the educational process. Accordingly, work has been done to create electronic classes for students in their studies that are available for free within other applications based on the Classroom application.
Classes were established in the field of various geographical disciplines, such as climatic geography, geomorphology, population geography, geographic information systems and other geographic materials. These scientific materials were communicated between Google meet students and teachers within the electronic classes in the Classroom program and used a program for discussion directly with students. Accordingly, work was done to establish a field study on the importance of e-learning in general and through its application in the subject of population geography and geographic information systems.

The Population Distribution of the Arab Tribes in Egypt in the Mamluk Era

Manahil Ahmed Mahmoud Al Jeraisy; Fathe Salim Humydi AL-Lahibi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 423-443
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176445

            The stability of the Arab tribes in Egypt and its cities dates back to the pre-Islamic era, and these migrations increased in the Islamic eras, starting with the liberation of Egypt in the Rashidun era, passing through the Umayyad and Abbasid eras. These migrations remained continuous to Egypt despite their separation from the Abbasids after the establishment of the Fatimid and Ayyubid states in it. Furthermore, when the Mamluk state was established on the ruins of the Ayyubids, the tribes had taken their natural position in stability due to the long period of their migration, and with Izz al-Din Aybak assuming the throne of the Sultanate in Egypt in a year ( 648 AH / 1250 AD) and the establishment of the Mamluk state. The Arab revolutions of these tribes began to break out against them in the various regions of Egypt, because they considered the Mamluks to be strangers to the country and that their original people were deserving of this rule on the one hand. They were considered slaves who had no right to rule the country and its free people on the other hand, so it was these revolutions and the reaction of the Mamluk sultans to them and their efforts which eliminate these revolutionaries and their role in changing the population map of these tribes in Egypt from what it was in previous ages. According to these changes, the study talks about their areas of distribution separately, in order to make it clear to the honorable reader to understand the political events.

Horses in Andalusia

kassem Abed Saadoun Al-Husseiny

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 444-473
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176446

            This brief research was devoted to studying a topic that the researchers did not cover much, as the historical sources did not provide us with sufficient information about horses in Andalusia. The Andalusian environment had an important role in the revival of horse breeding, as the abundance of grasses, the presence of forests, the different surfaces and climate in Andalusia, and the Andalusian society’s desire to practice agriculture and animal husbandry, all of this was a motive for Andalusia to have many pastoral areas that helped in raising animals such as horses, mules and donkeys, and it flourished. The livestock boom greatly contributed to the Andalusian economy and its development. The presence of the appropriate environment and the abundance of pastures in Andalusia led to the prosperity of horse breeding and its uniqueness with special specifications and distinctive capabilities that distinguished it from the rest of the Arab horses. Its uses have varied, especially in the fields of war and combat, the preservation of the country and the control of security. It is inevitable and unavoidable, which the rulers of Spain were aware of. So, rulers imposed a severe restriction, accompanied by the imposition of a heavy tax on the trade of horses and mules, especially those entering Islamic cities, and they were keen that the horses would not fall into the hands of Muslims, for fear that they would be used for military purposes and to carry out military operations against the Christian kingdoms. The study was organized with an introduction, two sections, and a conclusion. The first topic bore the title of the Andalusian environment and its impact on horse breeding, devoted to explaining the role of the Andalusian environment in horse breeding, with reference to the types of horses and the diseases that affect them. The joints of public life and its role in peace, war, gifts and diplomatic missions. Finally, the conclusion embodies the most prominent findings of the study, relying on the descriptive historical method, and analyzing what can be analyzed.

The general conditions of the Levant in the late sixteenth century until the beginning of the seventeenth century 1596-1635 AD

Salah Ibrahim Youssef; Ahmed Mohamed Nuri Ahmed

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 474-495
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176447

            The Levant suffered from administrative chaos and the instability of its political, security and economic conditions from the late sixteenth century until the beginning of the seventeenth century. The Ottoman authority endured a great deal of bad general conditions there because it preoccupied with its external wars on the western fronts with Austria and Spain and the eastern front with the Safavid state in Persia. This period was one of the most turbulent periods in the history of the Levant since its control in 1516 AD. The research sheds light on the nature of the Ottoman administration in the Levant, which was reflected in the general conditions there during that period.

((Britain’s Role in the Omani Internal Conflicts 1913-1932))

Ali Hamza Abbas

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 496-535
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176448

Abstract
     Britain played a major role in the internal conflicts of the Arabian Gulf region in general, and the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman in particular. This was done by fueling strife and controlling the tribal leaders and sheikhs inside Oman, and in return feeding the Omani coast represented by the Sultan (Muscat), with the support of one party at the expense of The other party with the use of bribes, gifts and financial grants to both parties to achieve its goals in Muscat and Oman.
      External and internal factors also contributed to activate the British role in the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman.  Such factors include the departure of Sultan Taimur bin Faisal to India and leaving the affairs of the Sultanate in the hands of the British political agent in Muscat and the tribal conflict and eternal hostility between the Imamate in the Omani interior and the Sultan on the Omani coast. Therefore, the Britain's role and influence over the Sultanate were strengthened and the country was in political, economic, social and cultural chaos.

Image of Mosul between Imad Al-Din Khalil and Abd Al-Munim Al-Amir in the Two Novels: Al-Aesar, Almidhana and Farba

ILham Abdulwahahhab Abdulqader

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 536-560
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176449

یهدف البحث الى  دراسة الصورة بوصفها قیمة جمالیة  قائمة على الانزیاح فی روایتی الاعصار والمئذنة وفارابا للروائیین عماد الدین خلیل وعبدالمنعم الأمیر، إذ سنتخذ الصورة وسیلة اجرائیة ومدخلا  نطمح من خلاله أن نقدم رؤیة نقدیة للنصین الذین استخدما الصورة فی سیاق  البنیة التکوینیة  فی السرد  للنص، إذ تبدو الصورة محورا  فی اعادة تقدیم الواقع فی الروایتین  والکشف عن التحولات  فیه وذلک عبر قدرة الصورة  على محاکاة الواقع وکذا الشعور واللاشعور ونقل الوجدان فهی بذلک تصبح ذات ابعاد وانماط  متعددة  تعکس الوعی  بالواقع وازماته ، فالروائی قادر على رسم شتى الصور ضمن متخیله السردی بوساطة  الوصف والحوار والرؤیة على اعتبار انها  من الالیات المهمة فی تشکیل  الصور السردیة ، فالروائی یلتقط الصور من واقعه ویربطها برؤاه التی یود طرحها فی النص ، فیسعى فی ذلک الى استثمار التاریخ او الاسطورة  او المسائل الاجتماعیة التی یراها فی مجتمعه على سبیل المثال ولیس الحصر ، فیصوغها فی نصه ، فیشکل مشهدا یمنح القاریء متعة فضلا عن اثارة تأویلات عدیدة لدیه

The Historical City of Raqqada, a Study of its Origins and Development

Wafaa Ahmed Mustafa

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 561-576
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176450

 
           The Arab Islamic city formed the interest of many researchers and historians. They sought to know the political, geographical and historical conditions that were behind its establishment. The Islamic Maghreb witnessed a wide urban movement represented by the emergence and expansion of cities. This arose as a result of the political stability that Morocco witnessed and brought about a radical change in society with the emergence of many cities that paved the way for the beginning of Arab stability, and these integrated cities combine the various conditions agreed upon by the Arab Muslims. Among these cities is the city of Raqqada, one of the most important cities of the Aghlabids, which was built to serve as their headquarters instead of the city of Abbasiya (the old palace), as it was known for its distinguished location, its many orchards, and its clean air. Accordingly, the current study deals with its origin, planning, and its political, social and economic history, as well as its cultural centres represented by the House of Wisdom.  Thus, the city of Raqqada represents a scientific beacon and a cultural symbol in the Near Maghreb.

Manifestations of unity and diversity between the Ayyubid and Mamluk states - Islamic buildings as a model

Muhammad Mahmoud Taha; Fayez Ali Bakhit

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 577-603
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176451

          The Ayyubid era witnessed great interest in religious buildings represented in mosques, scenes, schools, gorges, and grottoes. The Mamluk state followed them, but the Mamluk urban character was distinguished by delicate decorations and marble of various colours. So, Mamluk Cairo was truly a great museum. Hence, the study sheds light on the most famous religious buildings in both countries, with diligence in providing an accurate description of their distinct urban nature in showing unity and diversity in this aspect.

The Effect of Smart Training on a Number of Physical Variables for Football Players

Ahmed R. Al-Hayali; Rayan A. Al-Hasso; Maan A. Al-Hayali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 604-629
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176452

 
The aim of the research is to find out:
1- The effect of smart training on a number of physical variables of the football players of the experimental group.
2- The effect of traditional training on a number of physical variables of the football players of the control group.
3- The statistically significant differences in a number of physical variables for football players between the two post tests for the two groups (experimental and control).  
The researcher hypothesized that:
1-    There are statistically significant differences in a number of physical variables for football players between the pre and post tests of the experimental group.
2-    There are statistically significant differences in a number of physical variables for football players between the pre and post tests of the control group.
3-    There are statistically significant differences in some of the physical variables for football players between the two post tests for the two groups (experimental and control).
          The researcher used the experimental method for its relevance to the nature of the research.  The research community was deliberately determined from the youth players of the Mosul Sports Club in football for the sports season (2020-2021). It consisted of (40) players, (24) players were selected as the research sample. By following the random selection method using lottery, the sample was divided into two groups: experimental and control with (12) players for each group. The following statistical methods were used: (percentage, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, (T) test for linked and independent samples, simple correlation coefficient (Pearson), mode, skew coefficient) and the statistical bag (SPSS) was used to process the data.
The researchers concluded that:
1- The training design for smart training implemented by the experimental group made a significant development in some physical variables which are (strength characterized by speed of the legs, explosive power of the legs, maximum transitional speed, motor response speed, speed length of the legs, flexibility, compatibility) with the exception of the adjective of elongation that did not reach the moral level.
2- The training design for the trainer, which was implemented by the control group, made a significant development in the physical variables (the explosive power of the legs, maximum transitional speed, flexibility).
3-The experimental group that used smart training in the post-test outperformed the control group that adopted the trainer’s training in the physical variables (strength characterized by speed of the legs, speed of motor response, speed length of the legs, agility, compatibility).
After identifying the scientific conclusions related to the topic of the research, the researchers recommend the following:
1- Paying attention to smart training when developing training designs for youth teams, as the results of the research showed the development of physical attributes.
2- Paying attention to special physical qualities, and comprehensive practical training by football coaches.
3- Applying smart training to other age groups, such as the cubs and juniors' category, to show its impact on the development events of these groups.
4- Applying smart training with other exercises to determine their impact and importance for football players.

The Effect of a Psycho-social Programme on Increasing Self-Esteem of Seated Volleyball Players

Mutasim T. Abdullah Alalaf; Ogla Sulaiman Alhoory

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 630-653
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176453

This study aims at:

Preparing the psycho-social programme for increasing self-esteem of seated volleyball players,
Identifying the effect of the psycho-social programme on increasing self-esteem of seated volleyball players, and
Identifying the differences between the pre- and post-test of the experimental and control groups and the differences of the post-tests of the two groups in self-esteem scale.

To verify the aims of the study, the following hypotheses have been put:

There are statistical significant differences between self-esteem pre- and post-tests of the control and experimental groups.
There are statistical significant differences, in the degrees of self-esteem between the control and experimental groups in the post-tests.

The experimental design has been used for its suitability to the nature of the study. As for the sample of the study, it has been chosen purposefully; the experimental group is represented by the seated players in Ninevah who were (12) and the control group is represented by the seated players in Diala and who were also (12). The self-esteem scale was built and used by the researcher to collect data. Turning to the psycho-social programme, built by the researcher, it has been applied on the experimental group only. This application has been distributed on (12) sessions, (2) sessions per week. The two groups have been checked for equivalence in the variable of the study. To analyze the data, the (SPSS) statistical programme and other statistical tools have been used.
The following conclusions have been arrived at:

The appropriateness of self-esteem scale, built by the researcher, for its effect in increasing self-esteem of seated volleyball players in the experimental group .
There are statistical significant differences between the pre- and post-tests in self-esteem of the experimental group.

As for the recommendations, the most important ones are:

Adopting the scale of self-esteem for seated volleyball players and trying to apply it on other activities especially in disabled sports.
The necessity to enlighten trainers to have interest in psychological programmes for the disabled and to develop themselves through attending training sessions from time to time.
The necessity of the psychological advisor presence side by side with the technical trainer in all sport teams to help players and qualify them psychologically in addition to the physical, technical, and planning qualifications.

The Effect of Possession Exercises on Some Private and General Physical Characteristics of Young Football Players

Hussein Ahmed Hamza Al-Bayati Ahmed Hamza Al-Bayati; Maan Abdel Karim Al-Hayali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 654-674
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176454

                      The problem of the current research arose in conducting an experimental study to reveal the effect of possession of the ball training exercises on some of the physical characteristics of young football players. To reach to an acceptable scientific explanation to solve the problem of the current study, the following question is raised: "Does the ball possession exercises have a positive effect on the total physical characteristics under investigation?". So, the aim of the research is to reveal the effect of the ball possession exercises on some of the physical characteristics of football players, and to reveal the significance of statistical differences in a number of the physical characteristics of the football players between the experimental and control groups in the post-test. The research community deliberately involved the players of the Bright Future Youth Football Club in Nineveh governorate for the football season (2019-2020), whose number was (30) players, and the research sample consisted of (20) players representing a percentage of (75%) of the research community, and the researchers concluded:                                                 
                                                                                                                                          
           1- The latest training design for ball possession exercises carried out by the experimental group has developed in all physical characteristics (agility and maximum transitional speed, explosive power of the leg muscles, the characteristic force of velocity for the muscles of the legs, the characteristic strength of the speed of the abdominal muscles, elongation of force for the muscles of the legs, speed elongation, and elongation the public.                                                                                                         
2- The training design of the control group, implemented by the trainer, brought about a significant development in the two characteristics of general elongation and strength and speed of the abdominal muscles.                                                                                     
3- The experimental group that used ball possession exercises in the post tests outperformed the control group in all the general and special physical characteristics that were dealt with in the research.                                                                                      

The Effect of Physical Stiffness Exercises on Some of the Physical Abilities of Young Handball Players

Nemat Karim Mustafa,; Maher Ahmed Assi

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 675-683
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176455

         The importance of the research lies in adopting a modern training method that benefits the stiffness of the body. Modern exercises have been followed to increase the strength of the core muscle and the most important physical abilities of handball players.
The research aims to:
1. Prepare exercises for physical stiffness that are compatible with the capabilities of the research sample.
2. Identify the effect of physical stiffness exercises on some of the physical abilities of the research sample.
         The experimental design was used, and the research sample was chosen from the players of the College of Basic Education team handball for the academic year (2019-2020) at the age of (18-20) years. The results revealed that physical strength exercises, represented by (deep training and functional exercises) have helped in the development of physical abilities, and it was recommended to adopt training according to the method of physical stiffness, as it is compatible with the performance nature of the effectiveness of handball and according to what the law allows in friction and assertive behaviour.

The Effectiveness of a Training Program Based on Blended Learning in Developing the Practical Performance of a Number of Teaching Skills for Physical Education Teachers in the City of Mosul

faieq younis faieq

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 684-709
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176456

           The aim of the research is to reveal the effectiveness of the training program based on blended learning in developing the practical performance of a number of teaching skills for physical education teachers in the city of Mosul. The researchers used the experimental method.
           The research community consisted of physical education teachers who graduated from the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the College of Basic Education at the University of Mosul and whose job service ranges between (10-15) years in the schools of the Nineveh Governorate Center for the academic year (2021-2022), and their number is (89) female teachers. As for the sample of the research, it consisted of (25) female teachers. The researchers relied on the design of a single experimental group with a pre-and post-test, after making sure of the homogeneity among the group members in (age in years, number of years of functional service, and practical performance of teaching skills).
A training program based on blended learning was designed, in addition to the preparation of a performance note card for a number of teaching skills, and after presenting the training program, its general and behavioural objectives and its theoretical content with a model for an electronic and in-person training session, and obtaining official approvals from the Department of Preparation and Training affiliated to the Directorate of Education of Nineveh Governorate. The program was implemented in 7 weeks, with three sessions per week.
Two of the sessions are electronic, followed by an in-person session. The program was started on 30/11/2021 and ended on 11/1/2022. After the program completion, a post-test was conducted for the research sample, and the data was collected and statistically processed using the statistical program (SPSS). The results showed that there are significant differences between the mean scores of the pre and post-tests in the level of practical performance of teaching skills and the interest of the post-test.
Hence, the researchers concluded the following:
- The effectiveness of the training program in developing the practical performance of a number of teaching skills for physical education teachers.
- The effectiveness of blended learning in employing the training program and achieving its objectives.
 
 

The effect of the presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria to all kinds of blood components

Israa Nadhim Lateef

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 710-728
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176457

Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative, micro-aerobic, spiral-shaped bacteria and which considered one of the main factors that lead to stomach disorders such as gastric atrophy, stomach cancer, chronic gastritis, and peptic ulcers.
This study is carried out in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq included 325 participants, after conducting a series of tests to detect whether H. pylori infection is positive among participants, the number of infected participants were150 (48 males and 102 females), then complete Blood Counts test were done in order to investigate the relationship between the Component Blood Count and the infection of H. pylori.
These results concluded that H. pylori infection is more prevalent in females, also the percentage of infection decreases ages over 60 years and children less than 15 years, the incidence of H. pylori infection increases in people blood type A, the study didn't show any effect of smoking on the increased risk of infection with H. pylori.
In this study, the infected patients with H. pylori recorded an increase in WBCs equal to 24%, while lymphocyte counts didn't record any changes, RBCs were increases by 12%, some infected patients had fluctuations of increase and decrease in the level of Hb, figures were between 8% and 24%, respectively, the increase in the platelet count was 12%, and the decrease was 4%. There are significant differences in the relationship between infection with H. pylori and other factors such as; gender, age, WBCs, lymphocyte counts, RBCs, Hb, and platelet counts in the infected group at P ≤ 0.05.

The use of quantum mechanics methods to determine the ionization constant pKa for a number of acidic compounds derived from n-formyl piperidine

Salah H. M Sheet; Rayan Basheer Mahmod; Ahmed Y. Haydari

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 729-743
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176458

The ionization constant of five acidic compounds derived from n-formylpiperidine was theoretically studied, and in this study, the factors affecting the pKa of ionization constant of acidic compounds derived from n-formylpyridine were found, which are represented by Vander Waals forces, energy levels, hardness, chemical potential, and spherical electrophile index through Conducting a theoretical study of these compounds using two methods of quantum mechanics for the purpose of comparison, which are semi-empirical calculations, including Austin AM1 method, and Ab-initio basic calculations, including (HF) Hartree Fock method using Chem program. Office 2008 and the extent to which these two methods are compatible with the known chemical bases was determined by discussing the theoretical variables that were calculated using the two methods mentioned above to determine which of these two methods is the best in calculating these variables and finding the relationship between the theoretically calculated physical variables with each other and determining their nature.
These constants were linked with the practical values ​​of the ionization constant by conducting a simple and multiple statistical analysis process. The results gave a good relationship with the ionization constant through the high values ​​of the correlation equations (R2) that were obtained.
After conducting the multi-statistical analysis process, it was found that the best variables that affect the ionization constant in the (AM1) method are (MC-N8, Str.), and in the (HF) method are (W, Str.) and the rest of the variables were theoretically excluded because the coefficients of those variables Very few or equal to zero, and therefore these variables were adopted to obtain a relationship with better results, as it is noted that the values ​​of the correlation coefficient in the two methods are ([AM1] {0.9942}), ([HF] {0.9985}). By comparing the theoretical values ​​with the practical ones, it was found that the results of the HF method were closer to the practical results.
 

Spectrophotometric Determination of Resorcinol Using Oxidative Coupling Reactions

Reem A. Al-Luhaiby; Ahlam A. Shehab

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 744-754
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176459

A simple and fast spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of resorcinol based on the oxidative coupling reaction with terephthalic acid and in the presence of coppric sulfate as an oxidizing agent in basic medium from NaOH to form a colored product. The maximum absorption of the resulting complex at the wavelength was 440 nm, and the molar absorbance was 7486 l.mol-1. cm-1 for concentrations that followed Beer's law in the range of 0.4-18 μg. ml-1, The detection limit value was 0.55 μg. ml-1 and the quantitative limit was 1.82 μg. ml-1. and the accuracy of the method was 98.55%, while the relative standard deviation was less than 2.5% for the studied compound. It was found that resorcinol is formed with terephthalic acid in a ratio of 1:1, and the stability ratio of the formed complex was 4.844×105 (l.mol-1), which indicates the good stability of the product.
 

Spectrophotometric Determination of Domperidone Maleate, Carvedilol, Dimetindene Maleate and Cinnarizine in Pharmaceuticals by Ion Association Complex Formation with Erythrosine B Dye

Muthanna B. Abdullah; Elham S. Salih

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 755-783
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176460

Abstract
A direct simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of domperidone maleate (DOM), carvedilol (CAR), dimetindene maleate (DIM), and cinnarizine (CIN) in bluk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method was based on the formation of ion association complexes between the studied drugs and erythrosine B dye in citrate buffer solution (pH4.5), which show maximum absorbance at 555 nm for DOM or in acetate buffer solution (pH5-5.3) and measure the absorbance at 556, 556, 555 nm for CAR, DIM and CIN respectively. The method obeyed Beer,s law in the concentration range 0.5-20 µg/ml with molar absorptivity 3.70×104, 3.43×104,  2.62×104,  and 3.53×104 l.mol-1.cm-1 for DOM, CAR, DIM and CIN respectively. The accuracy (average recovery) was ranged between 99.47 and 101.27% and precision (RSD%) is less than 3.04%. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulations with no interferences. The results were in agood  agreement with certified value, official method and standard addition procedure.

Synthesis and characterization of some new cyclohexenone compounds derived from chalcones and evaluation of bacterial activity

Mohammad M. Al-Tufah

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 784-806
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176461

     In this study, some of the ethyl carboxylate cyclohexenone compounds have been prepared which derived from the chalcone were compounds. The chalcone compounds have been prepared by reaction of  cyclohexanone with substituted benzaldehyde (1-8) in an base medium, the resulting chalcones reacted with ethyl acetoacetate using (EtOH/DMF) as a solvent  produce substituted cyclohexenone (9-16). The prepared compounds were characterized using physical methods, The prepared compounds were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR for some of them The antibacterial activity were evaluated of some of them.                                                                                     
Keyword: Chalcone, Cyclohexenone, Robinson reaction, Claisen–Schmidt reactions

Studying the effect of reactor type on the efficiency of the prepared activated carbon From the wood of the lead tree by chemical treatment

Khaled Owaid; Muhannad Abdul Salam

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 807-817
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176462

The research Aims to study the effect of the type of reactor (rust-resistant iron, Cupper, Aluminum, pyrex, tin-galvanized iron, pottery) on the properties of activated carbon prepared from the wood of the Lead Tree, after conducting a primary carbonization process for wood at a temperature of ( 350 °C) ,for a period of (3 hours) and after The carbonated substance is treated with potassium hydroxide in a ratio of (1:1) (potassium hydroxide: the carbonated substance), and then the carbonization and  activation process takes place at a temperature of
(25 + 550 °C) for 2 hours,
after which the activated carbon prepared in the various reactors is purified and then a process is carried out Evaluation of the prepared activated carbon such as (Iodine number, methylene blue dye, moisture , density, ash content) and comparison of the results obtained from the use of different reactors.
 

Measuring the Quality of Higher Education Using Linear Programming Applied Study in the Faculty of Management and Economics University of Mosul

Rana Bashar Hussein; Azza Mustafa Abdel Qader; Rasha Talal Abdel Rahman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 818-836
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176463

Total quality management in higher education institutions is one of the important issues at the global level in general and in the Arabic region and Iraq in particular. Where the higher education sector is the main source for creating and training human resources in all fields, it is the main hub for the development and support of societies. Therefore, attention should be paid to the quality of the performance of these institutions and their outcomes by employing one of the methods of operations research, which is the method of linear programming to maximize the quality of higher education. Such a quality has a fundamental role in providing the requirements and working methods of universities to reach advanced levels of outstanding performance, by stimulating and training their human resources and using advanced methods in scientific performance.  There are many problems that delay the progress of students’ development in their college education, including the poor infrastructure of suitable classrooms, and an appropriate number of teaching staff fit with the huge number of students accepted into colleges. The second problem is the professional and educational lack in the organization of how to measure and evaluate the quality of education. The importance of the research lies in studying the topic of total quality management in higher education institutions and thus reaching recommendations for decision-makers in senior management of these institutions. The College of Administration and Economics, with its seven departments, was taken as a sample for this research, and its actual documented data from the records of the college departments were used within restrictions that have a direct impact on the quality of education depending on the infrastructure, teaching staff, employees, and success rates. The ready-made program QSB (Quantitive System For Business) was used to obtain the solution of the model and to measure the quality standards in the various departments.  The results of the linear programming showed that the quality standard in the College of Administration and Economics was (38%) depending on the infrastructure, teachers, students, and employees, which is a good result compared to other variables that were not taken into account such (scientific research, community service, leadership, and organizing...).

Exploring Iraqi Kurd EFL Students’ Learning Styles at University Level

Huda Kanaan Hamza; Abeer Khalaf Hussein

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 837-858
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176468

      Learning styles have gained the attention of educators specially curriculum designers due to its relation with how learners transfer information into knowledge. The present study tries to explore the learning styles of Kurd students at university level. In an attempt to find answers to the following research questions : "What are the common learning styles of Iraqi Kurd EFL learners?" and "Do Iraqi Kurd learners are able to define their styles of learning?". The study hypothesizes that English department students are visual, auditory, reading/writing and kinesthetic (hereafter VARK). It is also hypothesized that they are not able to regulate their learning styles. The results of the study have been collected by applying a questionnaire given to the sample. Furthermore, the results showed that most Iraqi Kurd EFL learners are visual and social learners that they agree with the items that are related to the above mentioned styles.

Gender and Grotesque in Marsha Norman Selected Plays: A Psychological study.

Farah Ammar

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 859-877
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176469

Abstract
This study is about Marsha Norman’s Night, Mother, and Traveler in the Dark are two of her best-known plays and often criticized. Norman uses grotesque images in the portrayal of the plays’ incidents and characters, and the implications of gender roles found therein. Norman’s works are well known for her care to violence committed by men upon women. This study aims to explore Norman’s treatment of gender and violence using elements of the grotesque from the psychobiological side. While much criticism of Norman’s works suggests that she uses grotesque violence to bemoan the victimization of women. My point of view is that Norman's handling of gender discloses that, irrespective of sex, individuals who fight to adapt to the prescribed roles of gender presented by society to them are grotesque and problematic.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Syllabus Concepts, Approaches and Types: A Theoretical Account

Arwa Luay Luay Abdulkhaleq .Asst. Lect

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2022, Volume 18, Issue 4, Pages 878-898
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2022.176470

Abstract
Language syllabus is a crucial element in the educational process. It is based on a decision about the "units" of classroom activity and the "sequence" in which they are to be performed. However, the researchers see that syllabus design is neglected nowadays, and it needs more light shading on. So, in this study, the researchers present the concepts of the syllabus, then, the most influential approaches to the syllabus are accounted for. Last, the researchers shed light on the basic types of syllabi be applied in the classroom. After stating and observing the theoretical account, the researchers conclude that the syllabus concepts are very crucial area needs to focus on as it represents a guide for both the teacher and the student in the classroom setting. Moreover, there are many syllabus types with a set of concepts; each leads to a specific type of syllabus. Last, according to the approaches stated, there are six syllabus types that most educationalists agreed upon. However, in real practice, more than one type of syllabus is applied.
Key Words: Syllabus, Concepts, Approaches, Types

Job stress for youth forum managers and members in Nineveh Governorate

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 474-509

هدف البحث إلى1- التعرف على مستوى الضغوط المهنية لدى العاملين في منتديات شباب محافظة نينوى.2- التعرف على مستوى الضغوط المهنية في كل منتدى على حدا.3- التعرف على مستوى الضغوط المهنية على وفق نوع العمل. تم استخدام المنهج الوصفي، وتكونت عينة البحث من (74) فردا موزعين على أربعة مراكز في محافظة نينوى هي (الموصل-القوش-تلعفر –الحدباء).لتحقيق أهداف البحث تم بناء مقياس للضغوط المهنية والتحقق من صدقه وثباته، وفي معالجة البيانات إحصائيا تم استخدام النسبة المئوية ومعامل ارتباط بيرسون والاختبار التائي واستنتج الباحثون ما يأتي:1-إن مستويات الضغوط المهنية لدى العاملين في منتديات الشباب بشكل عام معتدلة. 2-مستويات الضغوط المهنية في منتديات شباب ( القوش ، تلعفر ، الموصل ) معتدلة وفي منتدى شباب الحدباء منخفضة.3-ارتفاع مستوى الضغوط المهنية في منتدى شباب تلعفر بسبب الهيكل التنظيمي. 4-لا تتأثر الضغوط المهنية في منتديات الشباب بنوع العمل، فالمديرون والعاملون بالمجالات الأخرى لديهم ضغطا مهنيا معتدلا بشكل عام.5-ارتفاع الضغوط المهنية لدى المدراء بسبب عدم وجود بالتطور الوظيفي.6-يعاني العاملون في المجال الرياضي ضغوطا مهنية مرتفعة بسبب زيادة المسؤولية.The research aims at:1. Recognizing job stress level for youth forum members in Ninavah.2. Recognizing job stress level in each forum, separakly3. Recognizing job stress level according to job genre.The descriptive approach was used, the sample included (74) individuals who belong to (4) youth forum in (Mosul, Alkosh, Talafar, and Al-Hdbaa). Collecting the data was done adopting job stress Scale constructed by the researchers, The validity and reliability of this scale was verified.The data have been statistically handled using percentage, mean, Pearson correlation coefficient, and (T test)The research concludes with the following:1. Job stress level for youth forum members are generally moderate.2. Job stress levels in youth forum (Mosul, Alkosh, Talafar) are moderate, and in forum (Al-Hdbaa) are low.3. Job stress levels increased in (Talafar) youth forum because of its organization structure.4. Job stress are not affected by job genre.5. Job stress is increased for managers because of no attent with functional development.6. Workers in sport fields are suffering from job stress because of over responsibility

Discourse Analysis of Short Story 'The Man of the House'

Saffana Ayed Husein Al-Khattabee; Wayees Jallud Ibrahim Ibrahim

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 954-975
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.166005

Discourse analysis is considered as an instrument in analyzing elements which influence on our understanding of a particular text. Thus, discourse analysis is a highly coherent model in analyzing any spoken, like conversation, or written, like short story text.
The aim of this study is to analyze the discourse analysis of a short story, to show how the discourse is initiated, developed and terminated. How the characters participate, interact and what are the relationships among them, how those characters are introduced in the story; how they interrupt, ask questions, and how turns are distributed. The study also aims at counting the number of topics and how they are interrelated. To know whether the sequence of events is logical or not, and to know the fillers (Ah, Oh) and their functions. Further, the study tries to analyze a short story fro the grammatical point of view for stylistic characterization relying on (A Practical English Grammar) (1986) (Fourth Edition) by A. J. Thomson and A. V. Martinet. Also, to determine the speech acts and their percentages.
In order to achieve these aims, the study adopts the discourse analysis of a written text of a short story namely, The Man of the House, by analyzing and describing the different strategies like initiating, developing, and terminating. In this study, the model of discourse analysis is eclectic, comprising of three models; Hymes model (1972) who suggests the category of "speech event", and Sacks model (1968) which proposes interaction analysis based on four categories "conversation", "topic", "sequence", and "turn". Finally Sinclair-and Coulthard’s model (1975) of speech acts classification.
The present study hypothesizes that discourse analysis is conducted depending on the text and context and how the two terms complete each other. The meaning of the text is completed by action. Analysis is to be achieved structurally and linguistically. It is also found that the discourse is composed of the cooperating of acts, interaction of the participants, sequence of events, topics, and other units.
Throughout the analysis, it has been found that the participants perform different speech acts such as nomination which is the most frequently used. The frequency of nomination is 1156 which represents 52.3% of the total acts, reaction forms 555 which represents 25.1%. Evaluation records 198 which represents 8.9% of the total number of acts. There are other speech acts like comment, obligation, manner, and metastatement mentioned in the story. These acts vary according to their usages and functions, and percentages. In the analysis of speech events, the number of major events is 22 which forms (24.5%), while the number of minor events is 68 which forms (75.5%). It is worth mentioning that the participants in the aforementioned story are of different social classes.
The participants sometimes address each other by using terms of address in order to show respect, especially some of them are of higher status. The story is narrated in the first person pronoun ( I ), which means that the writer talks about his personal life. Sullivan did most of the turns, (41) which represents 47.6% of the total turns as he is the protagonist and the most important participant in the story. Dooley had (14) turns so that she came second in order that represents 16.2%. The mother came third in rank and did (13) turns which represents 15.5%. Some of the participants participated in conversations more than others, Dooley and Sullivan for instance participate in 12 turns which represents 29.2%, while Minnie and Sullivan participate in 9 turns which forms 21.9%.
Within the grammatical analysis, it is found that the number of content words are 4632 which represents 76.5%, the number of content words is 1420 which represents 23.4%, the number of definite articles is 290 which represents 73.9%, the number of indefinite articles is 102 which represents 26.0% of the total number of articles. The total number of nouns, such as countable nouns, singular nouns, feminine nouns, used by the story author is 2439.
Discourse analysis shows when and where the turns and topics are shifted, and changed. The use of fillers, such as (Ah) and (Oh), is important and related to the use of discourse; (Ah) occurs 8 times that is 72.7%, whilst (Oh) occurs 3 times that is 27.2%. Finally, the linguistic analysis of literature has many implications and benefits for language teaching.

Negative and Positive Effects of Globalization on the Social , Cultural , Political , and Economic Cases

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 506-545

Powerful countries used globalization as an execuse to achieve economical cultural and political dominance via big international companies and as a means of effect on international boards to control decision makers this fact is builton the fact that globalization is treadted not as production of technological scientific revolution only but also as an outcome of economical , political and military strategies , policies and procedures from powerful countries point of view . with globalization taken into its extreme , the gap between rich and poor countries increases and it is not known if these countries whether in rules and people made them accept a dark reality imposed by force centers allied with slogans improving their interests as well as directed global media and force if needed , a procedure followed in this time.

Simulation of using Optical grating in Dispersion compensation for Optical Fiber SMF

Duried Hazim Ahmad; Saba Maulood Sulayman

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2018, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 321-340
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2018.148069

In this work, a Fiber Bragg Gratings ,"FBG" had been implemented using a package of Optisystem7 as a compensation component for the spreading of optical pulse width equal to12.5ps transmitted by single mode optical fiber having 10km length and dispersion 16ps/nm.km. Moreover, the ideal performance had been investigated by using the mean value of bit error rate and quality factor for fiber communication system having fiber length 100km and bit rate 10Gbps NRZ . Also, ideal fiber grating have been taken under consideration . The results of this study confirm the ability of FBG to act as a dispersion compensation while the ideal performance occurring at QF= 9.51 & BER = 8.7 10-22at compensation of -1600ps/nm for fiber length of 100km.

The Main Themes in Heart of Darkness

Lubab Eltayeb Elmukashfi Elmukashfi; Ayad Mohammed Ali Ali

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2020, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 987-1009
DOI: 10.33899/berj.2020.166007

          Joseph Conrad wrote the novel the heart of darkness in the year 1899. He started writing this novel with a greatest plot of dominant themes from 1898 and competed the writing in the year 1899 February. This novella was first published by William Blackwood and Sons and released in Edinburgh on 13th November 1902 (Dominic Davies (2019)). This novella was rich with dominant themes namely Imperialism, White Man’s Burden, Lack of Truth, Colonization, Exploitation, Racial Discrimination, Alienation and Isolation, Moral Corruption, Violence and Human Greed and Deception. The novel was written to enlighten the effects of Imperialism and Colonialism with the power of freedom and rationalist thought inherited from his Polish parents of Conrad.  This novel was a predominant work to reveal the dominant themes raised from his inmost heart against the supremacy and racial discrimination demonstrated by the European emperors against the Asian and African people. This novel has reflected the contemporary political, social and economic conditions of Belgian Congo was witness with x-ray eyes. X-Ray indicates the external appearance as well as internal feelings. Heart of Darkness is the book which demonstrate the colonizers dominated the native Africans in the areas of Belgian Congo (Fothergill, Anthony (2003) PP 85-97).

Negative and Positive Effects of Globalization on the Social , Cultural , Political , and Economic Cases

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 506-545

Powerful countries used globalization as an execuse to achieve economical cultural and political dominance via big international companies and as a means of effect on international boards to control decision makers this fact is builton the fact that globalization is treadted not as production of technological scientific revolution only but also as an outcome of economical , political and military strategies , policies and procedures from powerful countries point of view . with globalization taken into its extreme , the gap between rich and poor countries increases and it is not known if these countries whether in rules and people made them accept a dark reality imposed by force centers allied with slogans improving their interests as well as directed global media and force if needed , a procedure followed in this time.

Behavioural Appearances of children with Autism according to their parents point of view at AL – Ghasaq and Sara Institutes

Lecturer. Muhsin Mahmood Ahmed AL; KIKI

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 76-99

The current research aims at investigating the Behavioural Appearances (BA( of children with autism according to their parents point of view . Moreover , it tries to determine the statistically significant differences (BA)(mean degress( of in children with autism according to their fathers and mothers points of view. The sample of the research has been chosen randomly which was (46) fathers and mothers of Autistic children from AL –Ghasaq and Sara Institutes in the center of Mosul .
In order to achieve the aims of the research , a questionnaire was prepared by the researcher which is composed of ( 32) items of (BA( . Face validity of the tool was achieved by exposing it to a group of specialists , while its reliability was calculated by using Guttman equation which was found to be (0,70) . weight mean was used for item arrangement , T-test was used for exploring the differences in Arithmetic means between fathers and mothers groups . The results revealed that :
1- There are many (BA( of children with autism from their parents point of view.
2- No statistically significant differences in the mean scores of (BA( of children with autism between their fathers and mothers point of view.
In view of the findings obtained , it is recommended that developing oral communication skills is a must for children with autism because language lets them connect and communicate with the outer community . Moreover , language breaks their isolation , through talking to them ever if they give no response or participate in playing . In addition , the researcher suggested other similar studies for children with autism in Iraq from their parents point of view.

Qus Bin Saida Al'Iyadi: Structural and Stylistic study

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 188-204

تسعى الدراسة الأسلوبية البنيوية إلى دراسة الهيكل البنائي للنص وتحليل أنساقه التي تكشف عن تنظيمه وفقاً للمستويات الأربعة الصوتي والتركيبي والبلاغي والدلالي، إذ أن كل واحد منها لها وحداتها وتعالقاتها الخاصة التي لا يمكنها بمفردها أن تنتج المعنى إلا باندماجها في مستوى أعلى، فالوحدة الصوتية لا تصبح طرفاً إلا عند اندماجها في الكلمة والكلمة عليها أن تندمج في الجملة، وصولاً إلى وحدة النص الكلية بوصفها بؤرة لاستجماع الوحدات الصغرى للنص، ومن هنا أثارنا دراسة خطبة (قس بن ساعدة الأيادي) دراسة أسلوبية بنيوية، وقد ركز المستوى الصوتي على دراسة الأصوات وتكرارها والتوازيات الصوتية والجناسات أما في دراسة المستوى التركيبي فقد انصب الاهتمام على دراسة الأساليب الإنشائية والخبرية وأدوات الربط التي لها الدور الفعل في إنتاج المعنى، أما في المستوى البلاغي فقد أولينا الاهتمام بالصورة التقابلية وما أحدثته في السياق النصي من أبعاد دلالية.This research attempts to study the speech of Qus Bin Sa’ida Al’iyadi analytically to show its stylistic-structural features as an oral art followed by narrators to tell people an idea or a view regarding their life and future. In order the orator be able to influence the feelings of his listeners; he should have a talent and training in theological performance techniques. The research study has started according to the following four levels: Phonological, structural, rhetorical and semantically.Finally, we should point out that in the phonological level; iteration, rhythm, and equivalence was evident in clarifying the idea that is in harmony with the text.At the structural level; compositional, predicate clauses and coupling article as well as poetry representation were obvious in casting stylistic significance revealing the associated psychological mood.At the rhetorical and semantic level; perceptive images and comparison between clauses in encircling the meaning comprehensively has become evident.

PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESSURE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL STIFFNESS of STUDENTS at THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

Dr. Tanheed Adel Fathal AL-Byirag

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 28-56

The research aimed to recognize the level of psychological pressures and its sources amongst students at the college of education –University of Mosul and its relationship with students level of psychological stiffness amongst them, as well as the effect of certain variables on both the psychological pressures and psychological stiffness amongst students of the college of education methoud and the psychological stiffness amongst them.
The researcher has applied the descriptive analytical and the research sample has consisted of (843) male and female students which represent about (17%) of the study population, a total of (5072) male and female students from all departments. The researcher has used two scales for measurement; the first is a pre-set scale to measure psychological pressures and the other, which was prepared by the researcher, is to measure the extent of their psychological stiffness. The validity and the stability of both tools were verified. The study has attained a set of findings, the most important of which are as follows:
- The level of psychological pressure amongst students of the college of education was (79.85) and their average psychological stiffness was (81.41).
- The study has shown that there are significant statistical differences amongst students of the college of education regarding the level of psychological pressure and psychological stiffness ascribed to the sex variable and in favor of male students. In other words, psychological pressures and psychological stiffness are higher amongst male students compared to female students.
- The study has shown that there are significant statistical differences amongst students of the college of education regarding the level of psychological pressure and psychological stiffness and in favor of scientific specialization.
- The study has shown that there are significant statistical differences amongst students of the college of education regarding the level of psychological pressure and psychological stiffness pursuant to class variable and in favor of the 4th class.
The study has recommended that the university, educators and teachers in particular should establish guidance programs to promote the knowledge of university students of the concept of psychological pressure and the affecting factors as well as improving the terms of study in the university.

The Prophet Hood Immigration(Causes and result)

College Of Basic Education Research Journal, 2007, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 174-199

الحمد لله رب العالمين وأفضل الصلاة وأتم التسليم على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين. إن السيرة النبوية من أشرف السير وأطهرها والكلام عنها والبحث في جوانبها إنما هي شرف عظيم لنا، كيف لا .... ونحن نتحدث عن رسول الله . وسيرته لا تقل أهمية عن موضوع التفسير أو الفقه أو الحديث وما إلى ذلك من العلوم الشرعية .دراسة السيرة النبوية إنما تعني فهم شخصية الرسول  (النبوية) والتأكيد على النبوة وذلك لأن من المستشرقين ومن تأثر بهم من يبرز جانب القوة والعبقرية والحكمة ويبعد جانب النبوة والرسالة عن الأذهان ،والسيرة النبوية ليست قصة أو رواية ، وإنما هي دروس وعبر، في الأيمان، والعبادة، والجهاد، والثبات، والدعوة ..... الخوقد اخترت في بحثي هذا جانبا من جوانب سيرته  وهي (الهجرة) من حيث الأسباب والنتائج ، فكلنا أو اغلبنا يعرف كيف هاجر النبي  ولكن القليل منا من ينظر أو يبحث في تفاصيلها ، إذ لم تكن الهجرة سفراً مريحاً لتجارة أو (لاستجمام) كما يقال وإنما كانت لأسباب مهمة دعت الحاجة لها، وما ترتب بعد ذلك دليل واضح على أهميتها في الإسلام ، ودليل على أنها كانت في سبيل الله ، ومن اجل نصرة دينه وإعلاء كلمته.The Brotherhoods bigrophy is more honesty than biographies and it is pure The speech about it and research in its aspects . itis great honesty to us .The speech about massanger s God . (PBUH) it is not reduce importance for interpetatlon of the Quran Hadith and Grammar ….ect .The prophets biography studying means under standing the Marssangers person it help us to understand the Quran and Hadith . I chose one aspect the immgration . Causes and results . every one nows how the prophet emigraeted . but Do all one deal with its detail No he don’t .

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  no-reply@ejournalplus.com

Editor-in-chief: Prof. Dr.Waleed Khalid Humam

Print ISSN: 1992-7452

Online ISSN: 2664-2808

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